|Name:||ATP-binding cassette, sub-family D (ALD), member 1, pseudogene 1|
|PubMed (8829626):|| Braun A, Kammerer S, Ambach H, Roscher AA. Characterization of a partial pseudogene homologous to the adrenoleukodystrophygene and application to mutation detection.Hum Mutat. 1996;7(2):105-8. PMID: 8829626 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]|
The gene for the most common peroxisomal disorder, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD, McKusick #300100), encodes a peroxisomal membrane transporter protein (ALDP), and comprises 10 exons spanning approximately 21 kb. So far, however, the mutation analysis at the genomic level was handicapped by the coamplification, in PCR reactions, of sequences related to the distal exons, also detected by Southern blot hybridization on genomic DNA. We isolated one clone from a human genomic phage library, which represents a partial ALD pseudogene, spanning exon 7 to exon 10 and exhibits approximately 93% sequence homology with the ALD gene in this region. Primers designed in the region of maximum mismatch between the pseudogene and the functional gene allowed the amplification of the functional exons without any contaminating sequences of the pseudogene or other related sequences. This information will greatly facilitate the detection of mutations in distal exons of the ALD gene and increase the reliability of the mutation analysis.
|PubMed (9215666):|| Eichler EE, Budarf ML, Rocchi M, Deaven LL, Doggett NA, Baldini A, NelsonDL, Mohrenweiser HW. Interchromosomal duplications of the adrenoleukodystrophy locus: a phenomenonof pericentromeric plasticity.Hum Mol Genet. 1997 Jul;6(7):991-1002. PMID: 9215666 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]|
A 9.7 kb segment encompassing exons 7-10 of the adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) locus of the X chromosome has duplicated to specific locations near the pericentromeric regions of human chromosomes 2p11,10p11, 16p11 and 22q11. Comparative sequence analysis reveals 92-96% nucleotide identity, indicating that the autosomal ALD paralogs arose relatively recently during the course of higher primate evolution (5-10 million years ago). Analysis of sequences flanking the duplication region identifies the presence of an unusual GCTTTTTGC repeat which may be a sequence-specific integration site for the process of pericentromeric-directed transposition. The breakpoint sequence and phylogenetic analysis predict a two-step transposition model, in which a duplication from Xq28 to pericentromeric 2p11 occurred once, followed by a rapid distribution of a larger duplicon cassette among the pericentromeric regions. In addition to facilitating more effective mutation detection among ALD patients, these findings provide further insight into the molecular basis underlying a pericentromeric-directed mechanism for non-homologous interchromosomal exchange.