|Name:||Kv channel interacting protein 4|
|Aliases:||CALP, KCHIP4, MGC44947|
|PubMed (11805342):|| Holmqvist MH, Cao J, Hernandez-Pineda R, Jacobson MD, Carroll KI, Sung MA,Betty M, Ge P, Gilbride KJ, Brown ME, Jurman ME, Lawson D, Silos-Santiago I, XieY, Covarrubias M, Rhodes KJ, Distefano PS, An WF. Elimination of fast inactivation in Kv4 A-type potassium channels by anauxiliary subunit domain.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jan 22;99(2):1035-40. PMID: 11805342 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]|
The Kv4 A-type potassium currents contribute to controlling the frequency of slow repetitive firing and back-propagation of action potentials in neurons and shape the action potential in heart. Kv4 currents exhibit rapid activation and inactivation and are specifically modulated by K-channel interacting proteins (KChIPs). Here we report the discovery and functional characterization of a modular K-channel inactivation suppressor (KIS) domain located in the first 34 aa of an additional KChIP (KChIP4a). Coexpression of KChIP4a with Kv4 alpha-subunits abolishes fast inactivation of the Kv4 currents in various cell types, including cerebellar granule neurons. Kinetic analysis shows that the KIS domain delays Kv4.3 opening, but once the channel is open, it disrupts rapid inactivation and slows Kv4.3 closing. Accordingly, KChIP4a increases the open probability of single Kv4.3 channels. The net effects of KChIP4a and KChIP1-3 on Kv4 gating are quite different. When both KChIP4a and KChIP1 are present, the Kv4.3 current shows mixed inactivation profiles dependent on KChIP4a/KChIP1 ratios. The KIS domain effectively converts the A-type Kv4 current to a slowly inactivating delayed rectifier-type potassium current. This conversion is opposite to that mediated by the Kv1-specific "ball" domain of the Kv beta 1 subunit. Together, these results demonstrate that specific auxiliary subunits with distinct functions actively modulate gating of potassium channels that govern membrane excitability.
|PubMed (11847232):|| Morohashi Y, Hatano N, Ohya S, Takikawa R, Watabiki T, Takasugi N, ImaizumiY, Tomita T, Iwatsubo T. Molecular cloning and characterization of CALP/KChIP4, a novel EF-hand proteininteracting with presenilin 2 and voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv4.J Biol Chem. 2002 Apr 26;277(17):14965-75. Epub 2002 Feb 14. PMID: 11847232 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]|
Presenilin (PS) genes linked to early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease encode polytopic membrane proteins that are presumed to constitute the catalytic subunit of gamma-secretase, forming a high molecular weight complex with other proteins. During our attempts to identify binding partners of PS2, we cloned CALP (calsenilin-like protein)/KChIP4, a novel member of calsenilin/KChIP protein family that interacts with the C-terminal region of PS. Upon co-expression in cultured cells, CALP was directly bound to and co-localized with PS2 in endoplasmic reticulum. Overexpression of CALP did not affect the metabolism or stability of PS complex, and gamma-cleavage of betaAPP or Notch site 3 cleavage was not altered. However, co-expression of CALP and a voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv4.2 reconstituted the features of A-type K(+) currents and CALP directly bound Kv4.2, indicating that CALP functions as KChIPs that are known as components of native Kv4 channel complex. Taken together, CALP/KChIP4 is a novel EF-hand protein interacting with PS as well as with Kv4 that may modulate functions of a subset of membrane proteins in brain.