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TRANSPORTERS FROM HUMANS:
Transporter Information:
Name: solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter), member 1
Symbol: SLC36A1
TC: 2.A.18.8.1
Locations: 5q33.1
Aliases: LYAAT-1, PAT1
GenBank: AK057340
Swiss-Prot: Q96M74
Accession Number: NM_078483
GDBGDB:11510815
LocusLink206358
OMIM606561
PubMed (11959859): Boll M, Foltz M, Rubio-Aliaga I, Kottra G, Daniel H. Functional characterization of two novel mammalian electrogenicproton-dependent amino acid cotransporters.J Biol Chem. 2002 Jun 21;277(25):22966-73. Epub 2002 Apr 16. PMID: 11959859 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

We cloned two cDNAs encoding proton/amino acid cotransporters, designated as mPAT1 and mPAT2, from murine tissues. They were identified by sequence similarity to the amino acid/auxin permease family member of lower eukaryotes. We functionally characterized both transporters by flux studies and electrophysiology after expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Both mPAT1 and mPAT2 induced a pH-dependent electrogenic transport activity for small amino acids (glycine, alanine, and proline) that is altered by membrane potential. Direct evidence for amino acid/H(+)-symport was shown by intracellular acidification, and a flux coupling stoichiometry for proline/H(+)-symport of 1:1 was determined for both transporters. Besides small apolar L-amino acids, the transporters also recognize their D-enantiomers and selected amino acid derivatives such as gamma-aminobutyric acid. The mPAT1 transporter, the murine orthologue of the recently cloned rat LYAAT-1 transporter, can be considered as a low affinity system when compared with mPAT2. The mRNA of mPAT1 is highly expressed in small intestine, colon, kidney, and brain; the mPAT2-mRNA is mainly found in heart and lung. Phenotypically, the PAT1 transporter possesses the same functional characteristics as the previously described proton-dependent amino acid transport process in apical membranes of intestinal and renal epithelial cells.

PubMed (11390972): Sagne C, Agulhon C, Ravassard P, Darmon M, Hamon M, El Mestikawy S, GasnierB, Giros B. Identification and characterization of a lysosomal transporter for smallneutral amino acids.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jun 19;98(13):7206-11. Epub 2001 Jun 05. PMID: 11390972 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

In eukaryotic cells, lysosomes represent a major site for macromolecule degradation. Hydrolysis products are eventually exported from this acidic organelle into the cytosol through specific transporters. Impairment of this process at either the hydrolysis or the efflux step is responsible of several lysosomal storage diseases. However, most lysosomal transporters, although biochemically characterized, remain unknown at the molecular level. In this study, we report the molecular and functional characterization of a lysosomal amino acid transporter (LYAAT-1), remotely related to a family of H+-coupled plasma membrane and synaptic vesicle amino acid transporters. LYAAT-1 is expressed in most rat tissues, with highest levels in the brain where it is present in neurons. Upon overexpression in COS-7 cells, the recombinant protein mediates the accumulation of neutral amino acids, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid, l-alanine, and l-proline, through an H+/amino acid symport. Confocal microscopy on brain sections revealed that this transporter colocalizes with cathepsin D, an established lysosomal marker. LYAAT-1 thus appears as a lysosomal transporter that actively exports neutral amino acids from lysosomes by chemiosmotic coupling to the H+-ATPase of these organelles. Homology searching in eukaryotic genomes suggests that LYAAT-1 defines a subgroup of lysosomal transporters in the amino acid/auxin permease family.