1.C.125. The Pore-forming Stonustoxin (Stonustoxin) Family
Stonustoxin is lethal towards mice and induces hemolytic activities due to its ability to form pores in the cell membrane (Poh et al. 1991; Chen et al. 1997). It elicits potent hypotension which is endothelium-dependent and appears to be mediated via the nitric oxide pathway. I activates potassium channels, displays edema-inducing activities, increases vascular permeability and induces endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of isolated rat aorta while inducing platelet aggregation. It is myotoxic and interferes irreversibly with neuromuscular function (Low et al. 1994). It is derived from the venom of the Scorpaena plumieri fish which have been analyzed by proteomic approaches (Borges et al. 2018).