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1.C.13 The Channel-forming Leukocidin Cytotoxin (Ctx) Family

A single protein, Ctx of phage φCTX of Pseudomonas aeruginosa comprises the Ctx family. The cytotoxin is believed to form hydrophilic pores in target cell membranes. The inactive, cell associated (non-secreted) precursor is converted to the active toxin by protease digestion at the same time that P. aeruginosa lyses. Leukocidin (cytotoxin) is active against most eukaryotic cells, especially leukocytes. It exhibits a short region similar to corresponding regions in α-toxin from Staphylococcus aureus and aerolysin from Aeromonas species (residues 222-251). The soluble secreted protein inserts into the target cell membrane and probably forms a pentameric pore-forming structure.

The generalized transport reaction is:

ions (in) ions (out).

This family belongs to the: Aerolysin Superfamily.

References associated with 1.C.13 family:

Hayashi, T., Y. Kamio, and Y. Terawaki. (1989). Purification and characterization of cytotoxin from the crude extract of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microbial Pathogenesis 6: 103-112. 2497292
Hayashi, T., Y. Kamio, F. Hishinuma, Y. Usami, K. Titani, and Y. Terawaki. (1989). Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytotoxin: the nucleotide sequence of the gene and the mechanism of activation of the protoxin. Mol. Microbiol. 3: 861-868. 2507866
Nakayama, K., S. Kanaya, M. Ohnishi, Y. Terawaki, and T. Hayashi. (1999). The complete nucleotide sequence of φCTX, a cytotoxin-converting phage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: implications for phage evolution and horizontal gene transfer via bacteriophages. Mol. Microbiol. 31: 399-419. 10027959
Sliwinski-Korell, A., H. Engelhardt, M. Kampka, and F. Lutz. (1999). Oligomerization and structural changes of the pore-forming Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytotoxin. Eur. J. Biochem. 265: 221-230. 10491177