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1.N.5.  The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Fusion GTPase, Atlastin (Atlastin) Family

Shape changes and topological remodeling of membranes are essential for the identity of organelles and membrane trafficking. Although all cellular membranes have common features, membranes of different organelles create unique environments that support specialized biological functions. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a prime example of this specialization, as its lipid bilayer forms an interconnected system of cisternae, vesicles, and tubules, providing a highly compartmentalized structure for a multitude of biochemical processes. A variety of peripheral and integral membrane proteins that facilitate membrane curvature generation, fission, and/or fusion have been identified. Among these, the dynamin-related proteins (DRPs) have emerged as key players. McNew et al. 2013 reviewed advances in the functional and molecular understanding of fusion DRPs, exemplified by atlastin, an ER-resident DRP that controls ER structure, function, and signaling.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane forms an elaborate network of tubules and sheets that is continuously remodeled. This dynamic behavior requires membrane fusion that is mediated by dynamin-like GTPases: the atlastins in metazoans and Sey1p and related proteins in yeast and plants. Crystal structures of the cytosolic domains of these membrane proteins and biochemical experiments allow them to be integrated into a model that explains many aspects of the molecular mechanism by which these membrane-bound GTPases mediate membrane fusion (Hu and Rapoport 2016). 

 

References associated with 1.N.5 family:

Hu, J. and T.A. Rapoport. (2016). Fusion of the endoplasmic reticulum by membrane-bound GTPases. Semin Cell Dev Biol 60: 105-111. 27269373
Hu, J., Y. Shibata, P.P. Zhu, C. Voss, N. Rismanchi, W.A. Prinz, T.A. Rapoport, and C. Blackstone. (2009). A class of dynamin-like GTPases involved in the generation of the tubular ER network. Cell 138: 549-561. 19665976
Lee, M., S.K. Paik, M.J. Lee, Y.J. Kim, S. Kim, M. Nahm, S.J. Oh, H.M. Kim, J. Yim, C.J. Lee, Y.C. Bae, and S. Lee. (2009). Drosophila Atlastin regulates the stability of muscle microtubules and is required for synapse development. Dev Biol 330: 250-262. 19341724
McNew, J.A., H. Sondermann, T. Lee, M. Stern, and F. Brandizzi. (2013). GTP-dependent membrane fusion. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 29: 529-550. 23875647
Orso, G., D. Pendin, S. Liu, J. Tosetto, T.J. Moss, J.E. Faust, M. Micaroni, A. Egorova, A. Martinuzzi, J.A. McNew, and A. Daga. (2009). Homotypic fusion of ER membranes requires the dynamin-like GTPase atlastin. Nature 460: 978-983. 19633650