1.O.2. Electroporation-induced Pore (EiP) Family
Electroporation, the transient increase in the permeability of cell membranes when exposed to a high electric field, is an established in vitro technique and is used to introduce DNA or other molecules into cells. When the trans-membrane voltage induced by an external electric field exceeds a certain threshold (normally 0.2-1 V), a rearrangement of the molecular structure of the membrane occurs, leading to pore formation in the membrane and a considerable increase in the cell membrane permeability to ions, molecules and even macromolecules. This phenomenon is, potentially, the basis for many in vivo applications such as electrochemotherapy and gene therapy (Chen et al. 2006). Electrochemotherapy (ECT) can be used for the treatment for metastatic nodules of solid tumors on the skin or subcutaneous tissue. ECT is a combination of a physical effect, cell membrane poration, and cytotoxic drug administration (Giardino et al. 2006).
Single-cell electroporation (SCEP) has emerged for single-cell studies. When a large enough electric field is applied to a single cell, transient nano-pores form in the cell membrane allowing molecules to be transported into and out of the cell (Wang et al. 2010). Unlike bulk electroporation, in which a homogenous electric field is applied to a suspension of cells, in SCEP, an electric field is created locally near a single cell. Pore formation has been discussed from theoretical and experimental approaches. Current SCEP techniques using microelectrodes, micropipettes, electrolyte-filled capillaries, and microfabricated devices are all thoroughly discussed for adherent and suspended cells. SCEP has been applied in in-vivo and in-vitro studies for delivery of cell-impermeant molecules such as drugs, DNA, and siRNA, and for morphological observations (Wang et al. 2010). Lipid pores can be induced by external fields, stress, and peptides (Kirsch and Böckmann 2016).