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1.O.2.  Electroporation-induced Pore (EiP) Family 

Electroporation, the transient increase in the permeability of cell membranes when exposed to a high electric field, is an established in vitro technique and is used to introduce DNA or other molecules into cells. When the trans-membrane voltage induced by an external electric field exceeds a certain threshold (normally 0.2-1 V), a rearrangement of the molecular structure of the membrane occurs, leading to pore formation in the membrane and a considerable increase in the cell membrane permeability to ions, molecules and even macromolecules. This phenomenon is, potentially, the basis for many in vivo applications such as electrochemotherapy and gene therapy (Chen et al. 2006). Electrochemotherapy (ECT) can be used for the treatment for metastatic nodules of solid tumors on the skin or subcutaneous tissue. ECT is a combination of a physical effect, cell membrane poration, and cytotoxic drug administration (Giardino et al. 2006).

Single-cell electroporation (SCEP) has emerged for single-cell studies. When a large enough electric field is applied to a single cell, transient nano-pores form in the cell membrane allowing molecules to be transported into and out of the cell (Wang et al. 2010). Unlike bulk electroporation, in which a homogenous electric field is applied to a suspension of cells, in SCEP, an electric field is created locally near a single cell. Pore formation has been discussed from theoretical and experimental approaches. Current SCEP techniques using microelectrodes, micropipettes, electrolyte-filled capillaries, and microfabricated devices are all thoroughly discussed for adherent and suspended cells. SCEP has been applied in in-vivo and in-vitro studies for delivery of cell-impermeant molecules such as drugs, DNA, and siRNA, and for morphological observations (Wang et al. 2010). Lipid pores can be induced by external fields, stress, and peptides (Kirsch and Böckmann 2016).

The applications of nanosecond, megavolt-per-meter electric field pulses to biological systems show cellular and subcellular electric field induced effects of electroporation. The absolute rate theory, with experimentally based parameter input, is consistent with membrane pore creation on a nanosecond time scale. Use of a Smoluchowski equation-based model for a planar cell membrane patch exposed to a 10 ns trapezoidal pulse with 1.5 ns rise and fall times, reversible supraelectroporation behavior in terms of transmembrane voltage, pore density, membrane conductance, fractional aqueous area, pore distribution, and average pore radius has been determined (Vasilkoski et al. 2006). Pore creation dominates the electrical response, and pore expansion proved to be negligible on this ns time scale.

References associated with 1.O.2 family:

Chen, C., S.W. Smye, M.P. Robinson, and J.A. Evans. (2006). Membrane electroporation theories: a review. Med Biol Eng Comput 44: 5-14. 16929916
Giardino, R., M. Fini, V. Bonazzi, R. Cadossi, A. Nicolini, and A. Carpi. (2006). Electrochemotherapy a novel approach to the treatment of metastatic nodules on the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Biomed Pharmacother 60: 458-462. 16930935
Kirsch, S.A. and R.A. Böckmann. (2016). Membrane pore formation in atomistic and coarse-grained simulations. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1858: 2266-2277. 26748016
Vasilkoski, Z., A.T. Esser, T.R. Gowrishankar, and J.C. Weaver. (2006). Membrane electroporation: The absolute rate equation and nanosecond time scale pore creation. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys 74: 021904. 17025469
Wang, M., O. Orwar, J. Olofsson, and S.G. Weber. (2010). Single-cell electroporation. Anal Bioanal Chem 397: 3235-3248. 20496058