1.O.3. The Sonoporation-induced Pore (SiP) Family
Ultrasound can be used to deliver compounds into viable cells for potential targeted drug delivery and non-viral gene transfection, revealing advantageous possibilities. The delivery is facilitated through sonoporation, the formation of temporary pores in the cell membrane induced by ultrasound. Pan et al. 2004 reviewed sonoporation mechanisms that can be used to achieve optimal delivery outcomes such as high delivery efficiency and minimal cell death. Using voltage clamp techniques, they obtained real-time measurements of sonoporation of single Xenopus oocytes in the presence of Optison, an agent consisting of albumin-shelled C3F8 gas bubbles. Ultrasound increased the transmembrane current as a direct result of decreased membrane resistance due to pore formation. The ability to real time monitor sonoporation of cells provides a novel tool to study the dynamic sonoporation process and obtain optimal delivery parameters. They confirmed the delivery of compounds into cells by using markers such as plasmid GFP. Sonoporation mechanisms have been reviewed (Bouakaz et al. 2016; Dasgupta et al. 2016; Castle and Feinstein 2016).