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1.O.4.  The Nanosecond/Microsecond Pulse-induced Pore/Electrofusion (NMiP) Family 

Microsecond pulsed electric fields are widely used in cell electroporation (see TC Families 1.O.1 and 2) and electrofusion, but it has been difficult to fuse cells with different sizes because the effect of electroporation, based on microsecond pulses alone, is dependent on cell sizes. Pores induced by short nanosecond pulses are small (0.9 nm), but the pores are easier to recover. Li et al. 2018 used a method to influence the distribution, radius and density of the pores, cell electrofusion, based on nanosecond/microsecond pulses. Two contact cells of different sizes are treated with different pulsed electric fields: two 100-ns, 10-kV/cm pulses, two 10-mμs, 1-kV/cm pulses, a 100-ns, 10-kV/cm pulse, and a 10-mμs, 1-kV/cm pulse. Advantages included: the pore radius is large (~70 nm) and the density is high in the cell junction area. In the non-contact area of the cell membrane, the pores are small (1-10 nm) and sparse (Li et al. 2018).

References associated with 1.O.4 family:

Li, C., Q. Ke, C. Yao, Y. Mi, H. Liu, Y. Lv, and C. Yao. (2018). Cell electrofusion based on nanosecond/microsecond pulsed electric fields. PLoS One 13: e0197167. 29795594