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2.A.102 The 4-Toluene Sulfonate Uptake Permease (TSUP) Family 

The TSUP family is also referred to as the TauE/SafE/YfcA/DUF81/COG0730 Family.  Although its members have not been rigorously characterized, evidence is available that at least some members function in the transport of sulfur containing organic compounds.  These include sulfolactate which may be exported by the TauE protein of Cupriavidus necator (Weinitschke et al. 2007; Mayer et al. 2012) and sulfoacetate which may be exported by the SafE1 protein of Neptuniibacter caesariensis (Krejcík et al. 2008).  Another member of the TSUP family, TsaS of Comamonas testosteroni, has been reported to function in the uptake of 4-toluene sulfonate (Mampel et al. 2004).  None of these functional assignments can be considered to be certain.

The TSUP family has been characterized using bioinformatic approaches.  Shlykov et al. 2012; showed that prokaryotic members of the family outnumber the eukaryotic members substantially, and in prokaryotes, but not eukaryotes, extensive lateral gene transfer occurred during family evolution. Despite unequal representation, homologues from the three taxonomic domains of life share well-conserved motifs. A prototypical eight TMS topology apparently arose by intragenic duplication of a four transmembrane segment (TMS) unit. Possibly, a two TMS α-helical hairpin structure was the precursor of the 4 TMS repeat unit. Genome context analyses confirmed the proposal of a sulfur-based compound transport role for many TSUP homologues, but functional outliers appear to be prevalent as well (Shlykov et al. 2012).  The TSUP is an established member of the Transporter/Opsin/G protein-coupled receptor (TOG) superfamily (Yee et al. 2013).

References associated with 2.A.102 family:

Gristwood, T., M.B. McNeil, J.S. Clulow, G.P. Salmond, and P.C. Fineran. (2011). PigS and PigP regulate prodigiosin biosynthesis in Serratia via differential control of divergent operons, which include predicted transporters of sulfur-containing molecules. J. Bacteriol. 193: 1076-1085. 21183667
Hug, L.A., B.J. Baker, K. Anantharaman, C.T. Brown, A.J. Probst, C.J. Castelle, C.N. Butterfield, A.W. Hernsdorf, Y. Amano, K. Ise, Y. Suzuki, N. Dudek, D.A. Relman, K.M. Finstad, R. Amundson, B.C. Thomas, and J.F. Banfield. (2016). A new view of the tree of life. Nat Microbiol 1: 16048. 27572647
Krejcík, Z., K. Denger, S. Weinitschke, K. Hollemeyer, V. Paces, A.M. Cook, and T.H. Smits. (2008). Sulfoacetate released during the assimilation of taurine-nitrogen by Neptuniibacter caesariensis: purification of sulfoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase. Arch. Microbiol. 190: 159-168. 18506422
Lin, J., T. Peng, L. Jiang, J.Z. Ni, Q. Liu, L. Chen, and Y. Zhang. (2015). Comparative genomics reveals new candidate genes involved in selenium metabolism in prokaryotes. Genome Biol Evol 7: 664-676. 25638258
Mampel, J., E. Maier, T. Tralau, J. Ruff, R. Benz, and A.M. Cook. (2004). A novel outer-membrane anion channel (porin) as part of a putatively two-component transport system for 4-toluenesulphonate in Comamonas testosteroni T-2. Biochem. J. 383: 91-99. 15176949
Mayer, J., K. Denger, K. Hollemeyer, D. Schleheck, and A.M. Cook. (2012). (R)-Cysteate-nitrogen assimilation by Cupriavidus necator H16 with excretion of 3-sulfolactate: a patchwork pathway. Arch. Microbiol. 194: 949-957. 22797525
Shlykov, M.A., W.H. Zheng, J.S. Chen, and M.H. Saier, Jr. (2012). Bioinformatic characterization of the 4-Toluene Sulfonate Uptake Permease (TSUP) family of transmembrane proteins. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1818: 703-717. 22192777
Weinitschke, S., K. Denger, A.M. Cook, and T.H. Smits. (2007). The DUF81 protein TauE in Cupriavidus necator H16, a sulfite exporter in the metabolism of C2 sulfonates. Microbiology 153: 3055-3060. 17768248
Yee, D.C., M.A. Shlykov, A. Västermark, V.S. Reddy, S. Arora, E.I. Sun, and M.H. Saier, Jr. (2013). The transporter-opsin-G protein-coupled receptor (TOG) superfamily. FEBS J. 280: 5780-5800. 23981446