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2.A.8 The Gluconate:H+ Symporter (GntP) Family

Protein members of the GntP family include known gluconate permeases of E. coli and Bacillus species (Peekhaus et al., 1997; Reizer et al., 1991). Four of the seven E. coli paralogues have been found to possess active gluconate uptake activity, and one of them (GntW) can accommodate both L-idonate and D-gluconate although L-idonate is the physiological substrate (Bausch et al., 1998). Another (GntP) transports D-gluconate with high affinity but is specifically induced by and transports D-fructuronate (Bates Utz et al., 2004). GntT of E. coli is the physiological gluconate permease (Porco et al., 1997). These proteins are of about 450 residues and possess 12 or 14 putative transmembrane α-helical spanners. The GntP family is in the IT superfamily (Prakash et al., 2003).

The generalized transport reaction catalyzed by proteins of the GntP family is:

Carbohydrate acid (out) + nH+ (out) → Carbohydrate acid (in) + nH+ (in).

This family belongs to the: IT Superfamily.

References associated with 2.A.8 family:

Anfora, A.T., and R.A. Welch. (2006). DsdX is the second D-serine transporter in uropathogenic Escherichia coli clinical isolate CFT073. J. Bacteriol. 188: 6622-6628. 16952954
Bates Utz, C., A.B. Nguyen, D.J. Smalley, A.B. Anderson, and T. Conway. (2004). GntP is the Escherichia coli fructuronic acid transporter and belongs to the UxuR regulon. J. Bacteriol. 186: 7690-7696. 15516583
Bausch, C., N. Peekhaus, C. Utz, T. Blais, E. Murray, T. Lowary, and T. Conway. (1998). Sequence analysis of the GntII (subsidiary) system for gluconate metabolism reveals a novel pathway for L-idonic acid catabolism in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 180: 3704-3710. 9658018
Duo, M., S. Hou, and D. Ren. (2008). Identifying Escherichia coli genes involved in intrinsic multidrug resistance. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 81: 731-741. 18807027
Fujita, Y., T. Fujita, Y. Miwa, J. Nihashi, and Y. Aratani. (1986). Organization and transcription of the gluconate operon, gnt, of Bacillus subtilis. J. Biol. Chem. 261: 13744-13753. 3020045
Letek, M., N. Valbuena, A. Ramos, E. Ordóñez, J.A. Gil, and L.M. Mateos. (2006). Characterization and use of catabolite-repressed promoters from gluconate genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum. J. Bacteriol. 188: 409-423. 16385030
Mosimann, M., S. Goshima, T. Wenzler, A. Lüscher, N. Uozumi, and P. Mäser. (2010). A Trk/HKT-type K+ transporter from Trypanosoma brucei. Eukaryot. Cell. 9: 539-546. 20190075
Peekhaus, N., S. Tong, J. Reizer, M.H. Saier, Jr., E. Murray, and T. Conway. (1997). Characterization of a novel transporter family that includes multiple Escherichia coli gluconate transporters and their homologues. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 147: 233-238. 9119199
Porco, A., E.E. Gamero, E. Mylonás, and T. Istúriz. (2008). Gluconate as suitable potential reduction supplier in Corynebacterium glutamicum: cloning and expression of gntP and gntK in Escherichia coli. Biol Res 41: 349-358. 19399347
Porco, A., N. Peekhaus, C. Bausch, S. Tong, T. Isturiz, and T. Conway. (1997). Molecular genetic characterization of the Escherichia coli gntT gene of GntI, the main system for gluconate metabolism. J. Bacteriol. 179: 1584-1590. 9045817
Prakash, S., G. Cooper, S. Singhi, and M.H. Saier, Jr. (2003). The ion transporter superfamily. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1618: 79-92. 14643936
Reizer, A., J. Deutscher, M.H. Saier, Jr., and J. Reizer. (1991). Analysis of the gluconate (gnt) operon of Bacillus subtilis. Mol. Microbiol. 5: 1081-1089. 1659648
Rodionov, D.A., P. Hebbeln, A. Eudes, J. ter Beek, I.A. Rodionova, G.B. Erkens, D.J. Slotboom, M.S. Gelfand, A.L. Osterman, A.D. Hanson, and T. Eitinger. (2009). A novel class of modular transporters for vitamins in prokaryotes. J. Bacteriol. 191: 42-51. 18931129
Rodionov, D.A., P.S. Novichkov, E.D. Stavrovskaya, I.A. Rodionova, X. Li, M.D. Kazanov, D.A. Ravcheev, A.V. Gerasimova, A.E. Kazakov, G.Y. Kovaleva, E.A. Permina, O.N. Laikova, R. Overbeek, M.F. Romine, J.K. Fredrickson, A.P. Arkin, I. Dubchak, A.L. Osterman, and M.S. Gelfand. (2011). Comparative genomic reconstruction of transcriptional networks controlling central metabolism in the Shewanella genus. BMC Genomics 12Suppl1: S3. 21810205
Tong, S., A. Porco, T. Isturiz, and T. Conway. (1996). Cloning and molecular genetic characterization of the Escherichia coli gntR, gntK, and gntU genes of GntI, the main system for gluconate metabolism. J. Bacteriol. 178: 3260-3269. 8655507
Yang, M., T. Mu, W. Zhong, A.M. Olajuyin, and J. Xing. (2017). Analysis of gluconate metabolism for pyruvate production in engineered Escherichia coli based on genome-wide transcriptomes. Lett Appl Microbiol 65: 165-172. 28561260