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8.A.117.  The Neuroligin (Nlg) Family 

Activity-dependent proteolytic cleavage of neuroligins revealed a broader role for neuroligins than just synaptic 'glue'. The cleaved extracellular fragments of neuroligins may promote glioma formation. Cell signaling mediated by the cleavage products of neuroligins suggest novel and important roles for neuroligins in neuro-glial signaling. Neuroligin isoforms are dynamically regulated by posttranslational events including phosphorylation, glycosylation and activity-dependent cleavage (Jeong et al. 2017). It appears that neuroligins are homologous to many esterases, and therefore, they may have esterase activity.

Physical interactions in the synapse, mediated by synaptic adhesion molecules such as neiroligins, are essential for synaptogenesis. The regulation of adhesion molecules and their interactions with other synaptic proteins affect synapse formation and synaptic function. Bemben et al. 2015 reviewed the neuroligins, which bind to their presynaptic partner neurexin across the synaptic cleft. A structural overview of neuroligins, including their intermolecular interactions and molecular modifications that occur within a synapse as well as their physiological functions were presented by Bemben et al. 2015. neuroligins are constituents of GABAA receptor complexes (Tomita 2019).

References associated with 8.A.117 family:

Bemben, M.A., S.L. Shipman, R.A. Nicoll, and K.W. Roche. (2015). The cellular and molecular landscape of neuroligins. Trends Neurosci 38: 496-505. 26209464
Jedlicka, P., J. Muellerleile, and S.W. Schwarzacher. (2018). Synaptic Plasticity and Excitation-Inhibition Balance in the Dentate Gyrus: Insights from Recordings in Neuroligin-1, Neuroligin-2, and Collybistin Knockouts. Neural Plast 2018: 6015753. 29670649
Jeong, J., J.D. Paskus, and K.W. Roche. (2017). Posttranslational modifications of neuroligins regulate neuronal and glial signaling. Curr Opin Neurobiol 45: 130-138. 28577430
Katzman, A. and C.M. Alberini. (2018). NLGN1 and NLGN2 in the prefrontal cortex: their role in memory consolidation and strengthening. Curr Opin Neurobiol 48: 122-130. 29278843
Maro, G.S., S. Gao, A.M. Olechwier, W.L. Hung, M. Liu, E. Özkan, M. Zhen, and K. Shen. (2015). MADD-4/Punctin and Neurexin Organize C. elegans GABAergic Postsynapses through Neuroligin. Neuron. 86: 1420-1432. 26028574
Sun, M., G. Xing, L. Yuan, G. Gan, D. Knight, S.I. With, C. He, J. Han, X. Zeng, M. Fang, G.L. Boulianne, and W. Xie. (2011). Neuroligin 2 is required for synapse development and function at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. J. Neurosci. 31: 687-699. 21228178
Tomita, S. (2019). Molecular constituents and localization of the ionotropic GABA receptor complex in vivo. Curr Opin Neurobiol 57: 81-86. [Epub: Ahead of Print] 30784980
Tu, H., B. Pinan-Lucarré, T. Ji, M. Jospin, and J.L. Bessereau. (2015). C. elegans Punctin Clusters GABA(A) Receptors via Neuroligin Binding and UNC-40/DCC Recruitment. Neuron. 86: 1407-1419. 26028575
Zhang, B., O. Gokce, W.D. Hale, N. Brose, and T.C. Südhof. (2018). Autism-associated neuroligin-4 mutation selectively impairs glycinergic synaptic transmission in mouse brainstem synapses. J Exp Med 215: 1543-1553. 29724786