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8.A.16 The Ca+ Channel Auxiliary Subunit γ1-γ8 (CCAγ) Family

Calcium channel γ1-8 auxiliary subunits all share limited sequence similarity and belong to a single family. They have the same topology of four transmembrane segments (a claudin domain) including a large loop between TMSs 1 and 2, a characteristic of TC family 1.H.2. All neuronal γ-subunits share a C-terminal consensus site for phosphorylation by cAMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinases. They associate with α-subunits of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (TC #1.A.1.11). Phylogenetic, bioinformatic, and functional studies indicated that these proteins are functionally diverse. A cluster containing gamma1 and gamma6 act primarily as subunits of calcium channels expressed in muscle. Members of a second cluster (gamma2, gamma3, gamma4, gamma8) function as regulators of AMPA receptor localization and function in the brain and are collectively known as TARPs. The function of members of the third cluster (gamma5, gamma7) remains unclear. Chen et al. 2007 showed that the members of each cluster contain conserved regulatory motifs that help to differentiate the groups.

γ2 (also called stargazin) and γ3 have been shown to associate with P/Q- and N-type channels.  Regulation by stargazin may occur via the G-beta-gamma subunits of Ca(v)2.2 (TC# 1.A.1.11.19) and G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channels, GIRK (see 1.A.2.1.3; Tselnicker and Dascal 2010). γ3 and γ4 are express only in neuronal tissues. γ1 and γ6 have two glycosylation sites, and this may be a characteristic of all γ-subunits. Binding of a TARP to the AMPAR membrane domains destabilizes the channel closed state, thereby enabling an efficient opening upon agonist binding, which then stabilizes the open state via subsequent interactions (Ben-Yaacov et al. 2017).

The eight members of the calcium channel gamma subunit family regulate the expression and behaviour of voltage and ligand gated ion channels. While a subgroup consisting of γ2, 3, 4 and 8,  (the TARPs) modulate AMPA receptor localization and function, the γ1 and 6 subunits conform to the original description of these proteins as regulators of voltage gated calcium channels.  γ6 mediates inhibition of the low voltage activated Cav3.1 channel by direct interaction involved the GxxxA motif in TMS1 (Lin et al. 2008).

These putative calcium channel auxiliary subunits are found in eukaryotic genomes including human, rat, mouse, fugu fish, chicken, zebra fish, fruitfly, and C. elegans. This family may function in the assembly, modulation of function and/or maintenance of structure of skeletal muscle and brain calcium channels. γ1 controls the dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type skeletal muscle calcium channel (TC #1.A.1.11.2). 

Transmembrane alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor (TC# 1.A.10) regulatory proteins (TARPs) are auxiliary subunits that regulate AMPA receptor trafficking to the plasma membrane and localization to postsynaptic sites. The classical TARP family consists of four members: stargazin/gamma-2, gamma-3, gamma-4 and gamma-8. The TARP gamma-8 isoform, which is highly expressed in the hippocampus, has a unique, long, C-terminal domain with five distinct regions: two glycine- rich regions, a serine/arginine-rich region, a proline/alanine (P/A)-rich region, and a PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ) binding motif. Itakura et al. 2014 performed mass spectrometry and immunoprecipitation assays to identify specific binding partners for the gamma-8 C-terminal tail and found that gamma-8, but not stargazin/gamma-2, co-immunoprecipitated with calcineurin/PP2B, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent Ser/Thr phosphatase. Co-immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analyses of lysates from COS-7 cells co- transfected with calcineurin and either wild type or chimeric gamma-8 revealed that a section of the C-terminal tail (residues 356-421) can bind calcineurin. Futhermore, gamma-8 lacking the P/A-rich region (residues 383-399) did not bind to calcineurin. In addition, the GST-gamma-8 C-terminal tail (residues 353-414) fusion protein containing the P/A-rich region bound to purified calcineurin in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner, whereas GST-gamma-8 with a deletion of the P/A-rich region did not. Peptide competition assays demonstrated that gamma-8 may interact with the hydrophobic pocket defined by beta-sheet 14 and/or adjacent regions of the catalytic A subunit of calcineurin. Thus, the gamma-8 P/A-rich region is essential for binding calcineurin, suggesting that the gamma-8/calcineurin complex may regulate AMPA receptor phosphorylation and trafficking (Itakura et al. 2014).

References associated with 8.A.16 family:

Ben-Yaacov, A., M. Gillor, T. Haham, A. Parsai, M. Qneibi, and Y. Stern-Bach. (2017). Molecular Mechanism of AMPA Receptor Modulation by TARP/Stargazin. Neuron. 93: 1126-1137.e4. 28238551
Chen, R.S., T.C. Deng, T. Garcia, Z.M. Sellers, and P.M. Best. (2007). Calcium channel gamma subunits: a functionally diverse protein family. Cell Biochem Biophys 47: 178-186. 17652770
Chu P.J., H.M. Robertson, and P.M. Best. (2001). Calcium channel gamma subunits provide insights into the evolution of this gene family. Gene 280: 37-48. 11738816
Cokić, B. and V. Stein. (2008). Stargazin modulates AMPA receptor antagonism. Neuropharmacology 54: 1062-1070. 18378265
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Gurnett, C.A. and K.P Campbell. (1996). Transmembrane auxiliary subunits of voltage-dependent ion channels. J. Biol. Chem. 271: 27975-27978. 8910401
Itakura, M., I. Watanabe, T. Sugaya, and M. Takahashi. (2014). Direct association of the unique C-terminal tail of transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein γ-8 with calcineurin. FEBS J. 281: 1366-1378. 24418105
Kato, A.S., W. Zhou, A.D. Milstein, M.D. Knierman, E.R. Siuda, J.E. Dotzlaf, H. Yu, J.E. Hale, E.S. Nisenbaum, R.A. Nicoll, and D.S. Bredt. (2007). New transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein isoform, γ-7, differentially regulates AMPA receptors. J. Neurosci. 27: 4969-4977. 17475805
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Lin, Z., K. Witschas, T. Garcia, R.S. Chen, J.P. Hansen, Z.M. Sellers, E. Kuzmenkina, S. Herzig, and P.M. Best. (2008). A critical GxxxA motif in the gamma6 calcium channel subunit mediates its inhibitory effect on Cav3.1 calcium current. J. Physiol. 586: 5349-5366. 18818244
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McGee, T.P., C. Bats, M. Farrant, and S.G. Cull-Candy. (2015). Auxiliary Subunit GSG1L Acts to Suppress Calcium-Permeable AMPA Receptor Function. J. Neurosci. 35: 16171-16179. 26658868
Roy, B., K.T. Ahmed, M.E. Cunningham, J. Ferdous, R. Mukherjee, W. Zheng, X.Z. Chen, and D.W. Ali. (2016). Zebrafish TARP Cacng2 is required for the expression and normal development of AMPA receptors at excitatory synapses. Dev Neurobiol 76: 487-506. 26178704
Sharp, A.H., J.L. Black, 3rd, S.J. Dubel, S. Sundarraj, J.P. Shen, A.M. Yunker, T.D. Copeland, and M.W. McEnery. (2001). Biochemical and anatomical evidence for specialized voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma isoform expression in the epileptic and ataxic mouse, stargazer. Neuroscience 105: 599-617. 11516827
Simske, J.S. and J. Hardin. (2011). Claudin family proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans. Methods Mol Biol 762: 147-169. 21717355
Studniarczyk, D., I. Coombs, S.G. Cull-Candy, and M. Farrant. (2013). TARP γ-7 selectively enhances synaptic expression of calcium-permeable AMPARs. Nat Neurosci 16: 1266-1274. 23872597
Tselnicker, I. and N. Dascal. (2010). Further characterization of regulation of Ca(V)2.2 by stargazin. Channels (Austin) 4: 351-354. 21139418
Twomey, E.C., M.V. Yelshanskaya, R.A. Grassucci, J. Frank, and A.I. Sobolevsky. (2017). Structural Bases of Desensitization in AMPA Receptor-Auxiliary Subunit Complexes. Neuron. 94: 569-580.e5. 28472657
Yamazaki, M., C.E. Le Pichon, A.C. Jackson, M. Cerpas, K. Sakimura, K. Scearce-Levie, and R.A. Nicoll. (2015). Relative contribution of TARPs γ-2 and γ-7 to cerebellar excitatory synaptic transmission and motor behavior. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112: E371-379. 25583485