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8.A.91 The Syntaxin (Syntaxin) Family

Syntaxins play roles in hormone and neurotransmitter exocytosis and are potentially involved in docking of synaptic vesicles at presynaptic active zones. During exocytosis, vesicle-associated v-SNARE (synaptobrevin) and target cell-associated t-SNAREs (syntaxin and SNAP-25) assemble into a core trans-SNARE complex. This complex plays a versatile role at various stages of exocytosis ranging from the priming to fusion pore formation and expansion, finally resulting in the release or exchange of the vesicle content (Han et al. 2017). Syntaxins may also mediate Ca2+-regulation of exocytosis in the acrosomal reaction in sperm (Hutt et al. 2005). SNARE proteins (synaptobrevin, SNAP25 and syntaxin), synaptophysin, Ca2+/calmodulin, and members of the synaptotagmin protein family (Syt1, Syt4, Syt7 and Syt11) are involved in the balance and tight coupling of exo-endocytosis in neurons (Xie et al. 2017). Syntaxins regulate many channels and carriers including those listed in TCDB under TC#s 1.A.1.11.3, 1.A.1.11.4, 1.A.1.11.8, 1.A.1.2.13, 1.A.6.1.1 and 2.A.22.1.4 (see these entries) (Saxena et al. 2006).
Some syntaxins are listed under family 1.F.1 (see 1.F.1.1.3 and 1.F.1.1.4).

References associated with 8.A.91 family:

Ghaemmaghami, S., W.K. Huh, K. Bower, R.W. Howson, A. Belle, N. Dephoure, E.K. O''Shea, and J.S. Weissman. (2003). Global analysis of protein expression in yeast. Nature 425: 737-741. 14562106
Han, J., K. Pluhackova, and R.A. Böckmann. (2017). The Multifaceted Role of SNARE Proteins in Membrane Fusion. Front Physiol 8: 5. 28163686
Hutt, D.M., J.M. Baltz, and J.K. Ngsee. (2005). Synaptotagmin VI and VIII and syntaxin 2 are essential for the mouse sperm acrosome reaction. J. Biol. Chem. 280: 20197-20203. 15774481
Sajman, J., M. Trus, D. Atlas, and E. Sherman. (2017). The L-type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel co-localizes with Syntaxin 1A in nano-clusters at the plasma membrane. Sci Rep 7: 11350. 28900128
Saxena, S.K., M. Singh, S. Kaur, and C. George. (2006). Distinct domain-dependent effect of syntaxin1A on amiloride-sensitive sodium channel (ENaC) currents in HT-29 colonic epithelial cells. Int J Biol Sci 3: 47-56. 17200691
Teh, O.K., Y. Shimono, M. Shirakawa, Y. Fukao, K. Tamura, T. Shimada, and I. Hara-Nishimura. (2013). The AP-1 μ adaptin is required for KNOLLE localization at the cell plate to mediate cytokinesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 54: 838-847. 23543752
Xie, Z., J. Long, J. Liu, Z. Chai, X. Kang, and C. Wang. (2017). Molecular Mechanisms for the Coupling of Endocytosis to Exocytosis in Neuron.s. Front Mol Neurosci 10: 47. 28348516
Zhang, Y. and Y.K. Shin. (2006). Transmembrane organization of yeast syntaxin-analogue Sso1p. Biochemistry 45: 4173-4181. 16566591