TCDB is operated by the Saier Lab Bioinformatics Group
TCIDNameDomainKingdom/PhylumProtein(s)
*8.B.1.1.1









The α-neurotoxin BmK-MI precursor/x-ray structure known to 1.4 Å (Guan et al., 2004) (α-subfamily)
Eukaryota
Metazoa
BmK-MI of Mesobuthus (Buthus) martensii (84 aas; P45697)
*8.B.1.1.2









Markatoxin-III (MkTx-III) precursor
Eukaryota
Metazoa
MkTx-III of Mesobuthus (Buthus) martensii (85 aas; P59853)
*8.B.1.1.3









Non-toxic immunogenic venom protein, NTxp, precursor
Eukaryota
Metazoa
NTxp of Tityus serrulatus (84 aas; O77463)
*8.B.1.1.4









Depressant anti-insect-specific toxin 2 precursor, LqqIT2
Eukaryota
Metazoa
LqqIT2 of Leiurus quinquestriatus (82 aas; P19855)
*8.B.1.1.5









Excitatory insect-selective toxin 1 precursor, BmKIT1 (binds voltage independently to Na+ channels, shifting the voltage of activation to more negative potentials)
Eukaryota
Metazoa
BmKIT1 of Buthus martensii (88 aas; O61668)
*8.B.1.1.6









Pain-inducing α-toxin of 97 aas, CvIV4 (Rowe et al. 2011).  CvIV4 slowed the fast inactivation of Na(v)1.7, a Na+ channel expressed in peripheral pain-pathway neurons (nociceptors), but did not affect the Na(v)1.8-based sodium currents of these neurons. CvIV4 also slowed the fast inactivation of Na(v)1.2, Na(v)1.3 and Na(v)1.4. The effects of CvIV4 are similar to Old World α-toxins that target Na(v)1.7 (AahII, BmK MI, LqhIII, OD1).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
CvIV4 of Centruroides vittatus
*8.B.1.1.7









AahII; neurotoxin 2 of 85 aas. Scorpion α-toxins bind voltage-independently at site-3 of sodium channels (Nav) and inhibit the inactivation of the activated channels, thereby blocking neuronal transmission. This toxin is active against mammals.

Eukaryota
Metazoa
AahII of Androctonus australis (Sahara scorpion)
*8.B.1.1.8









α-Neurotoxin of 67 aas from the yellow scorpion, LqhIII.  Binds voltage-independently at site-3 of sodium channels and inhibits the inactivation of the activated channels, modulating inactivation by hindering voltage-sensor movement, thereby blocking neuronal transmission (Ma et al. 2013). Dissociation is voltage-dependent. This alpha-like toxin is highly toxic to insects and competes with LqhaIT on binding to insect sodium channels. Differs from classical anti-mammalian alpha-toxins as it inhibits sodium channel inactivation in cell bodies of hippocampus brain neurons, on which the anti-mammalian Lqh2 is inactive, and is unable to affect Nav1.2 in the rat brain, on which Lqh2 is highly active (Rowe et al. 2011).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
LqhIII of Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus
*8.B.1.1.9









Drosomycin, an antimicrobial antifungal peptide of 70 aas and 1 N-terminal TMS.  Targets tetrodttoxin resistant Na+ channels (Zhu et al. 2010) including the Drosophila Na+ channel (Cohen et al. 2009).

Eukaryota
Metazoa
Drosomycin of Drosophila melanogaster
*8.B.1.1.10









U3m-buthitoxin-Hj1a, partial, of 83 aas.

Eukaryota
Metazoa
Hj1a of Hottentotta judaicus
*8.B.1.1.11









Toxin TdNa9 of 85 aas and 1 TMS. This toxin binds, in vitro, to sodium channels and inhibits the inactivation of the activated channels.

Eukaryota
Metazoa
TdNa9 of Tityus discrepans (Venezuelan scorpion)
*8.B.1.2.1









Anti-crustacean-specific toxin 1 (β-subfamily)
Eukaryota
Metazoa
Anti-crustacean-specific toxin 1 of Centruroides limpidus (66 aas; P45667)
*8.B.1.2.2









Beta-anti-mammalian scorpian toxin, Css4 of 87 aas and 1 N-terminal TMS.  Beta toxins bind voltage-independently at site-4 of sodium channels (Nav) and shift the voltage of activation toward more negative potentials, thereby affecting sodium channel activation and promoting spontaneous and repetitive firing (Cestèle et al. 2001). This toxin is active only on Na+ channels in mammals (Cestèle et al. 1998). Binding results from electrostatic interactions in domain II of the Na+ channels (Mantegazza and Cestèle 2005).

 

Eukaryota
Metazoa
Css4 of Centruroides suffusus (Durango bark scorpion)
*8.B.1.3.1









Uncharacterized protein of 100 aas and 1 N-terminal TMS.

Eukaryota
Viridiplantae
UP of Setaria viridis
*8.B.1.4.1









Conotoxin Mr22.1 of 90 aas and 1 N-terminal TMS.  This protein aligns with 9.B.1.1.9.

Eukaryota
Metazoa
Conotoxin of Conus marmoreus
*8.B.1.4.2









Conotoxin precursor superfamily E, partial, of 86 aas and 1 N-terminal TMS.

Eukaryota
Metazoa
Conotoxin of Conus ermineus
*8.B.1.4.3









Conotoxin Vc22.1 of 91 aas and 1 N-terminal TMS.

Eukaryota
Metazoa
C-Vc22 of Conus victoriae (Queen Victoria cone)
*8.B.1.4.4









Conopeptide im005 of 83 aas and 1 N-terminal TMS.

Eukaryota
Metazoa
C-im005 of Conus imperialis