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8.B.17 The Sea Anemone Peptide Toxin Class III (ShI) Family

Cnidaria (sea anemone, coral, jellyfish, and hydroid) toxins target voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels. The sodium channel toxin is a member of the Toxin-4 Superfamily. It binds specifically to the sodium channel (Nav), thereby delaying its inactivation during signal transduction. Thus it strongly stimulates mammalian cardiac muscle contraction.These toxins are reviewed by Moran et al., 2009. Cnidarian toxin families, including peptide neurotoxins (voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channel-targeting toxins: NaTxs and KTxs, respectively), pore-forming toxins (actinoporins, aerolysin-related toxins, and jellyfish toxins), and the newly discovered small cysteine-rich peptides (SCRiPs).

References associated with 8.B.17 family:

Fogh, R.H., W.R. Kem, and R.S. Norton. (1990). Solution structure of neurotoxin I from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. A nuclear magnetic resonance, distance geometry, and restrained molecular dynamics study. J. Biol. Chem. 265: 13016-13028. 1973932
Fraz√£o, B., V. Vasconcelos, and A. Antunes. (2012). Sea anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) toxins: an overview. Mar Drugs 10: 1812-1851. 23015776
Moran, Y., D. Gordon, and M. Gurevitz. (2009). Sea anemone toxins affecting voltage-gated sodium channels--molecular and evolutionary features. Toxicon 54: 1089-1101. 19268682