1.A.37 The CD20 Ca2+ Channel (CD20) Family

The B-lymphocyte differentiation antigen, CD20 (also called B1, Leu-16 and BP35), is a protein of 297 aas with 4 TMSs (Tedder et al., 1989). Both the N- and C-termini are in the cytoplasm. The protein is phosphorylated by one or more ser/thr protein kinases that may regulate its role in B-cell activation and proliferation. Transfection of CD20 into ectopic cell types generates a Ca2+ conductance found constitutively in B lymphocytes (Bubien et al., 1993). The CD20 Ca2+-permeable cation channel expressed in Balb/c3T3 cells is activated by insulin-like growth factor and the α-subunits of G-proteins (Kanzaki et al., 1997a,b). It is a store-operated calcium entry modulator in skeletal muscle (Parolini et al. 2012). Homologues include the high affinity IgE receptor, the testes development regulated protein NYD-SP21 and the Chandra protein. Homologues with BLAST scores above threshold are found only in mammals.



This family belongs to the .

 

References:

Boulay, A.C., B. Saubaméa, S. Cisternino, V. Mignon, A. Mazeraud, L. Jourdren, C. Blugeon, and M. Cohen-Salmon. (2015). The Sarcoglycan complex is expressed in the cerebrovascular system and is specifically regulated by astroglial Cx30 channels. Front Cell Neurosci 9: 9.

Brown, A.A., J. Jensen, Y.S. Nikolova, S. Djurovic, I. Agartz, A. Server, R.E. Ferrell, S.B. Manuck, M. Mattingsdal, I. Melle, A.R. Hariri, A. Frigessi, and O.A. Andreassen. (2012). Genetic variants affecting the neural processing of human facial expressions: evidence using a genome-wide functional imaging approach. Transl Psychiatry 2: e143.

Bubien, J.K., L.J. Zhou, P.D. Bell, R.A. Frizzell, and T.F. Tedder. (1993). Transfection of the CD20 cell surface molecule into ectopic cell types generates a Ca2+ conductance found constitutively in B lymphocytes. J. Cell Biol. 121: 1121-1132.

Cohn, R.D., M. Durbeej, S.A. Moore, R. Coral-Vazquez, S. Prouty, and K.P. Campbell. (2001). Prevention of cardiomyopathy in mouse models lacking the smooth muscle sarcoglycan-sarcospan complex. J Clin Invest 107: R1-7.

Kanzaki, M., L. Nie, H. Shibata, and I. Kojima. (1997a). Activation of a calcium-permeable cation channel CD20 expressed in Balb/c3T3 cells by insulin-like growth factor-I. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 4964-4969.

Kanzaki, M., M.A. Lindorfer, J.C. Garrison, and I. Kojima. (1997b). Activation of the calcium-permeable cation channel CD20 by alpha subunits of the Gi protein. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 14733-14739.

Li, H., M. Zhang, E. Linghu, F. Zhou, J.G. Herman, L. Hu, and M. Guo. (2018). Epigenetic silencing of TMEM176A activates ERK signaling in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Epigenetics 10: 137.

Liu, W.B., F. Han, X. Jiang, H.Q. Chen, H. Zhao, Y. Liu, Y.H. Li, C. Huang, J. Cao, and J.Y. Liu. (2015). TMEM196 acts as a novel functional tumour suppressor inactivated by DNA methylation and is a potential prognostic biomarker in lung cancer. Oncotarget 6: 21225-21239.

Parolini D., Cassinelli L., Razini P., Sitzia C., Tonna N., Erratico S., Colleoni F., Angeloni V., Maffioli E., Farini A., Maciotta S., Porretti L., Belicchi M., Bianco F., Tedeschi G., Meregalli M. and Torrente Y. (2012). Expression of CD20 reveals a new store-operated calcium entry modulator in skeletal muscle. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 44(12):2095-105.

Penhallow, R.C., K. Class, H. Sonoda, J.B. Bolen, and R.B. Rowley. (1995). Temporal activation of nontransmembrane protein-tyrosine kinases following mast cell Fc epsilon RI engagement. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 23362-23365.

Segovia, M., S. Russo, M. Jeldres, Y.D. Mahmoud, V. Perez, M. Duhalde, P. Charnet, M. Rousset, S. Victoria, F. Veigas, C. Louvet, B. Vanhove, R.A. Floto, I. Anegon, M.C. Cuturi, M.R. Girotti, G.A. Rabinovich, and M. Hill. (2019). Targeting TMEM176B Enhances Antitumor Immunity and Augments the Efficacy of Immune Checkpoint Blockers by Unleashing Inflammasome Activation. Cancer Cell 35: 767-781.e6.

Sun, Y., D. Zhang, G. Sun, Y. Lv, Y. Li, X. Li, Y. Song, J. Li, Z. Fan, and H. Wang. (2018). RNA-sequencing study of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in sporadic Ménière's disease patients: possible contribution of immunologic dysfunction to the development of this disorder. Clin Exp Immunol 192: 33-45.

Tedder, T.F., G. Klejman, S.F. Schlossman, and H. Saito. (1989). Structure of the gene encoding the human B lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD20 (B1). J. Immunol. 142: 2560-2568.

Zuccolo, J., J. Bau, S.J. Childs, G.G. Goss, C.W. Sensen, and J.P. Deans. (2010). Phylogenetic analysis of the MS4A and TMEM176 gene families. PLoS One 5: e9369.

Examples:

TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample
1.A.37.1.1The CD20 cation channel (B-lymphocyte CD20 antigen)AnimalsCD20 of Homo sapiens
 
1.A.37.1.5

Uncharacterized protein of 247 aas and 4 TMSs in a 3 + 1 TMS arrangement.

UP of Xiphophorus couchianus (Monterrey platyfish)

 
Examples:

TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample
1.A.37.2.1

Membrane-spanning 4 TMS subfamily A member 10 (MS4A superfamily), HTm4

Animals

HTm4 of Homo sapiens (Q96PG2)

 
Examples:

TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample
1.A.37.3.1

4 TMS testes development-related NYD-SP21 protein

Animals

NYD-SP21 of Homo sapiens (Q96JA4)

 
1.A.37.3.2

MS4A2 of 244 aas and 4 TMSs. High affinity receptor that binds to the Fc region of immunoglobulins epsilon. Aggregation of Fc epsilon receptor (FCERI) by multivalent antigens is required for the full mast cell response, including the release of preformed mediators (such as histamine) by degranulation and de novo production of lipid mediators and cytokines (Penhallow et al. 1995). Also mediates the secretion of important lymphokines. Binding of allergen to receptor-bound IgE leads to cell activation and the release of mediators responsible for the manifestations of allergy.

MS412 of Homo sapiens

 
1.A.37.3.3

Uncharacterized membrane-spanning 4-domain subfamily A member 4A-like protein of 261 aas and 4 or 5 TMSs in a 3 or 4 + 1 TMS arrangement.

UP of Cyprinus carpio

 
Examples:

TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample
1.A.37.4.1

Fam189A1 or CD20 family with 539 aas and 4 TMSs.

CD20 family protein of Homo sapiens

 
Examples:

TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample
1.A.37.5.1

Sarcospan, SSPN, of 242 aas and 4 TMSs.  Part of the smooth muscle sarcoglycan-sarcospan  complex which in involved in idiopathic cardiomyopathy associated with myocardial ischemia (Cohn et al. 2001).  Regulated by astroglial connexin 30 channels (TC# 1.A.24.1.7; Boulay et al. 2015).

Sarcospan of Bos taurus

 
Examples:

TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample
1.A.37.6.1

TMem196 of 185 aas and 4 TMSs,  Acts as a tumor suppressor (Liu et al. 2015).

TMem196 protein of Canis lupus familiaris (Dog) (Canis familiaris)

 
Examples:

TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample
1.A.37.7.1

Transmembrane protein 212, TMEM212, of 194 aas and 4 or 5 TMSs (Brown et al. 2012).

TMEM212 of Homo sapiens

 
Examples:

TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample
1.A.37.8.1

TMEM176B of 270 aas and 4 - 6 TMSs.  It is upregulated in Meniere's disease (Sun et al. 2018). Phylogenetic analyses of the MS4A and TMEM176 gene families have been reported (Zuccolo et al. 2010). This protein is up-regulated in Meniere's disease (Sun et al. 2018).  Pharmacologic de-repression of the inflammasome by targeting TMEM176B may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint blockers (Segovia et al. 2019).

TMEM176B of Homo sapiens

 
1.A.37.8.2

TMEM176A of 235 aas and 4 to 6 TMSs in a 3 or 4 TMS cluster followed by a 1 or 2 TMS cluster. Epigenetic silencing of TMEM176A activates ERK signaling in human hepatocellular carcinoma due to promoter methylation (Li et al. 2018).

TMEM176A of Homo sapiens

 
1.A.37.8.3

Uncharacterized protein of 244 aas and 5 TMSs in a 4 + 1 TMS arrangement.

UP of Carassius auratus

 
1.A.37.8.4

Uncharacterized TMEM176 homologue of 326 aas and an apparent 4 TMSs in a 3 + 1 TMS arrangement with a C-terminal annexin domain (see TC# 1.A.31).

UP of Branchiostoma floridae (Florida lancelet) (Amphioxus)