1.E.11 The φ11 Holin (φ11 Holin) Family

See 1.E for a generalized description of Holins.

The pneumococcal EJ-1 phage holin (EJh) is a hydrophobic peptide (85 aas) with 2 putative TMSs displaying lethal inner membrane disruptive activity. The synthetic N-terminal TMS flanked by its N-terminal positively charged residues folds into a transmembrane α-helix that increases the membrane permeability. Oligomeric channels of various sizes form depending on the peptide to lipid ratio (Haro et al., 2003). By atomic force microscopy, peptide-induced membrane holes can be seen.



This family belongs to the Holin Superfamily I.

 

References:

Bon, J., N. Mani, and R.K. Jayaswal. (1997). Molecular analysis of lytic genes of bacteriophage 80 alpha of Staphylococcus aureus. Can. J. Microbiol. 43: 612-616.

Cerca, N., R. Oliveira, and J. Azeredo. (2007). Susceptibility of Staphylococcus epidermidis planktonic cells and biofilms to the lytic action of staphylococcus bacteriophage K. Lett Appl Microbiol 45: 313-317.

Curtin, J.J. and R.M. Donlan. (2006). Using bacteriophages to reduce formation of catheter-associated biofilms by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50: 1268-1275.

Diaz, E., M. Munthali, H. Lunsdorf, J.V. Holtje, and K.N. Timmis. (1996). The two-step lysis system of pneumococcal bacteriophage EJ-1 is functional in gram-negative bacteria: triggering of the major pneumococcal autolysin in Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 19: 667-681.

Haro, A., M. Vélez, E. Goormaghtigh, S. Lago, J. Vázquez, D. Andreu, and M. Gasset. (2003). Reconstitution of holin activity with a synthetic peptide containing the 1-32 sequence region of EJh, the EJ-1 phage holin. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 3929-3936.

Loessner, M.J., S. Gaeng, G. Wendlinger, S.K. Maier, and S. Scherer. (1998). The two-component lysis system of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage Twort: a large TTG-start holin and an associated amidase endolysin. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 162: 265-274.

Martínez, V., P. García, J.L. García, and M.A. Prieto. (2011). Controlled autolysis facilitates the polyhydroxyalkanoate recovery in Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Microb Biotechnol 4: 533-547.

Seal, B.S., D.E. Fouts, M. Simmons, J.K. Garrish, R.L. Kuntz, R. Woolsey, K.M. Schegg, A.M. Kropinski, H.W. Ackermann, and G.R. Siragusa. (2011). Clostridium perfringens bacteriophages ΦCP39O and ΦCP26F: genomic organization and proteomic analysis of the virions. Arch Virol 156: 25-35.

Song, J., F. Xia, H. Jiang, X. Li, L. Hu, P. Gong, L. Lei, X. Feng, C. Sun, J. Gu, and W. Han. (2016). Identification and characterization of HolGH15: the holin of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage GH15. J Gen Virol 97: 1272-1281.

Examples:

TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample
1.E.11.1.1

Holin 145 (Bon et al. 1997)

Staphylococcus phage φ11

Holin (145 aas)

 
1.E.11.1.10

Holin of 100 aas and 2 TMSs

Actinobacteria

Holin of Atopobium parvulum

 
1.E.11.1.2HolinLactococcus phage Tuc 2009Holin (88 aas)
 
1.E.11.1.3

Holin of 85 aas, Ejh (Diaz et al. 1996).  A synthetic peptide based on Ejh has been reconstituted and shown to be active (Haro et al. 2003).  Ejh has been used to promote release of polyhydroxyalkanoate granules from bacterial cells (Martínez et al. 2011).

EJh of Streptococcus pneumoniae phage EJ-1

Holin EJh (85 aas)

 
1.E.11.1.4

Holin

Firmicutes

Holin of of Streptococcus pyongenes

 
1.E.11.1.5

Holin HolTW (Loessner et al. 1998).

Firmicute viruses

Holin HolTS of Staphylococcus phage TWORT

 
1.E.11.1.6

Putative holin

Firmicutes

Putative holin of Listeria innocua

 
1.E.11.1.7

Putative holin; phage phiLC3 holin family

Firmicutes

Putative holin of Streptococcus sanguinis

 
1.E.11.1.8

Holin (Orf33) of 167 aas from Stahylococcus phage K. Phage K lysis differentially affects planctonic and biofilm cells (Cerca et al. 2007; Curtin and Donlan 2006).  95% identical to HolGH15 of phage GH15 of S. aureus which has broad host range antibacterial activity against many pathogens (Song et al. 2016).

Firmicute viruses

Orf33 of Stahylococcus phage K; HolGH15 of Staphylococcus phage GH15

 
1.E.11.1.9

Holin of the phage phi LC3 family of 91 aas and 2 TMSs

Actinobacteeria

Holin of Collinsella aerofaciens

 
Examples:

TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample
1.E.11.2.1

Holin of Clostridium phage phiCP390 (Seal et al. 2011).  This holin is identical to the holin of phage phiCP26F (gp23; F2VHY0).

Viruses

Holin of Clostridium perfringens phage PhiCP390

 
1.E.11.2.2

Putative holin

Firmicutes

Putative holin of Clostridium perfringens

 
1.E.11.2.3

Putative holin

Firmicutes

Putative holin of Geobacillus kustophilus

 
Examples:

TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample
1.E.11.3.1

Putative holin of 49 aas and 1 TMS.  TMS 1 corresponds to TMS 2 in the holins of TC subfamilies 1.E.11.1 and 1.E.11.2.

Proteobacteria

Putative holin of Pseudomonas putida

 
1.E.11.3.2

Putative holin of 50 aas and 1 TMS

Proteobacteria

Putative holin of Pseudomonas syringae