1.E.11 The φ11 Holin (φ11 Holin) Family
See 1.E for a generalized description of Holins.
The pneumococcal EJ-1 phage holin (EJh) is a hydrophobic peptide (85 aas) with 2 putative TMSs displaying lethal inner membrane disruptive activity. The synthetic N-terminal TMS flanked by its N-terminal positively charged residues folds into a transmembrane α-helix that increases the membrane permeability. Oligomeric channels of various sizes form depending on the peptide to lipid ratio (Haro et al., 2003). By atomic force microscopy, peptide-induced membrane holes can be seen.
Holin 145 (Bon et al. 1997)
Staphylococcus phage φ11
Holin (145 aas)
Holin of 100 aas and 2 TMSs
Holin of Atopobium parvulum
Holin of 85 aas, Ejh (Diaz et al. 1996). A synthetic peptide based on Ejh has been reconstituted and shown to be active (Haro et al. 2003). Ejh has been used to promote release of polyhydroxyalkanoate granules from bacterial cells (Martínez et al. 2011).
EJh of Streptococcus pneumoniae phage EJ-1
Holin EJh (85 aas)
Holin of of Streptococcus pyongenes
Holin HolTW (Loessner et al. 1998).
Holin HolTS of Staphylococcus phage TWORT
Putative holin of Listeria innocua
Putative holin; phage phiLC3 holin family
Putative holin of Streptococcus sanguinis
Holin (Orf33) of 167 aas from Stahylococcus phage K. Phage K lysis differentially affects planctonic and biofilm cells (Cerca et al. 2007; Curtin and Donlan 2006). 95% identical to HolGH15 of phage GH15 of S. aureus which has broad host range antibacterial activity against many pathogens (Song et al. 2016).
Orf33 of Stahylococcus phage K; HolGH15 of Staphylococcus phage GH15
Holin of the phage phi LC3 family of 91 aas and 2 TMSs
Holin of Collinsella aerofaciens
Holin of Clostridium phage phiCP390 (Seal et al. 2011). This holin is identical to the holin of phage phiCP26F (gp23; F2VHY0).
Holin of Clostridium perfringens phage PhiCP390
Putative holin of Clostridium perfringens
Putative holin of Geobacillus kustophilus
Putative holin of 49 aas and 1 TMS. TMS 1 corresponds to TMS 2 in the holins of TC subfamilies 1.E.11.1 and 1.E.11.2.
Putative holin of Pseudomonas putida
Putative holin of 50 aas and 1 TMS
Putative holin of Pseudomonas syringae