8.A.14 The Ca2+-activated K+ Channel auxiliary subunit Slowpoke-β (Sloβ) Family

The Sloβ (slowpoke, subunit β) family is a relatively small family of vertebrate homologues. The principal subunit (α) is the large conductance Ca2+-activated BK K+ channel (TC #1.A.1.3.1), which requires both Ca2+ and voltage for opening. Sloβ possesses 2 TMSs with the N- and C-termini, bearing phosphorylation sites in the cytoplasm, and the extracellular loop is glycosylated. The Sloβ subunit regulates sensitivity to voltage and Ca2+. It may enhance Ca2+ sensitivity by altering the conformation and movements of the voltage sensor. A similar function of the beta2 subunit may be governed by a distinct mechanism (Yang et al., 2008).

Regulation of voltage-activated K+ channel gating by transmembrane β-subunits has been reviewed (Sun et al., 2012). The beta2 subunit of BKCa modulates the apparent Ca2+/voltage sensitivity as well as the pharmacological and kinetic properties of the channel. In addition, the N terminus of the beta2 subunit acts as an inactivating particle that produces a relatively fast inactivation of the ionic conductance. Thus, the beta2 subunit of BKCa channels facilitates channel activation by changing the voltage sensor equilibrium, and this is followed by beta(2)-induced inactivation (Savalli et al. 2007).

Coded by a single gene (Slo1, KCM) BK channels are activated by depolarizing potentials and by a rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration.  They are large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ channel tetramers characterized by a pore-forming alpha subunit containing seven transmembrane segments (instead of the six found in voltage-dependent K+ channels) and a large C-terminus composed of two  K+ conductance regulatory domains (RCK domains), where the Ca2+-binding sites reside. BK channels are associated with accessory beta subunits, and four beta subunits are known (beta1, beta2, beta3, and beta4). Despite the fact that they all share the same topology, each beta subunit has a specific tissue distribution, modifies channel kinetics distinctively, exhibits different pharmacological properties and has different Ca2+ sensitivities (Torres et al. 2014).

The transport reaction catalyzed by the BK channel αβ complex is:

K+ (in) K+ (out)



This family belongs to the .

 

References:

Anjard, C. and W.F. Loomis. (2006). GABA induces terminal differentiation of Dictyostelium through a GABAB receptor. Development 133: 2253-2261.

Brenner, R., T.J. Jegla, A. Wickenden, Y. Liu, and R.W. Aldrich. Cloning and functional characterization of novel large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel β subunits, hKCNMB3 and hKCNMB4. J. Biol. Chem. 275: 6453-6461.

Bukiya, A.N., A.K. Singh, A.L. Parrill, and A.M. Dopico. (2011). The steroid interaction site in transmembrane domain 2 of the large conductance, voltage- and calcium-gated potassium (BK) channel accessory β1 subunit. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108: 20207-20212.

Coetzee, W.A., Y. Amalillo, J. Chiu, A. Chow, D. Lau, T. McCormack, H. Moreno, M.S. Nadal, A. Ozaita, D. Pountney, M. Saganich, E. Vega-Saenz de Miera, and B. Rudy (1999). Molecular diversity of K+ channels. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci USA 868: 233-285.

Hoshi, T., Y. Tian, R. Xu, S.H. Heinemann, and S. Hou. (2013). Mechanism of the modulation of BK potassium channel complexes with different auxiliary subunit compositions by the omega-3 fatty acid DHA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110: 4822-4827.

Kuntamallappanavar, G. and A.M. Dopico. (2017). BK β1 Subunit-Dependent Facilitation Of Ethanol Inhibition Of BK Current And Cerebral Artery Constriction Is Mediated By The β1 Transmembrane Domain 2. Br J Pharmacol. [Epub: Ahead of Print]

Mangubat, E.Z., T.-T. Tseng, and E. Jakobsson. (2003). Phylogenetic analyses of potassium channel auxiliary subunits. J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (in press).

Prabhu, Y., R. Müller, C. Anjard, and A.A. Noegel. (2007). GrlJ, a Dictyostelium GABAB-like receptor with roles in post-aggregation development. BMC Dev Biol 7: 44.

Savalli, N., A. Kondratiev, S.B. de Quintana, L. Toro, and R. Olcese. (2007). Modes of operation of the BKCa channel beta2 subunit. J Gen Physiol 130: 117-131.

Sun, X., M.A. Zaydman, and J. Cui. (2012). Regulation of Voltage-Activated K+ Channel Gating by Transmembrane β Subunits. Front Pharmacol 3: 63.

Tseng-Crank, J., N. Godinot, T.E. Johansen, P.K. Ahring, D. Strøbaek, R. Mertz, C.D. Foster, S.P. Olesen, and P.H. Reinhart. (1996). Cloning, expression, and distribution of a Ca2+-activated K+ channel β-subunit from human brain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93: 9200-9205.

Wallner, M., P. Meera, and L. Toro. (1999). Molecular basis of fast inactivation in voltage and Ca2+-activated K+ channels: a transmembrane beta-subunit homolog. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96: 4137-4142.

Yang, H., G. Zhang, J. Shi, U.S. Lee, K. Delaloye, and J. Cui. (2008). Subunit-specific effect of the voltage sensor domain on Ca2+ sensitivity of BK channels. Biophys. J. 94: 4678-4687.

Zarei, M.M., M. Song, R.J. Wilson, N. Cox, L.V. Colom, H.G. Knaus, E. Stefani, and L. Toro. (2007). Endocytic trafficking signals in KCNMB2 regulate surface expression of a large conductance voltage and Ca2+-activated K+ channel. Neuroscience 147: 80-89.

Examples:

TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample
8.A.14.1.1

Sloβ auxiliary subunit

Animals

Sloβ from Mus musculus (Q9JIN6)

 
8.A.14.1.2

Smooth muscle and brain Ca2+-activated K+ channel β-subunit, Slo-β (β1); confers increased Ca2+ and voltage sensitivity (Tseng-Crank et al., 1996). A steroid interaction site is in transmembrane domain 2 of the potassium (BK) channel accessory β-subunit (Bukiya et al., 2011). A Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), found in oily fish, lower blood pressure by activating vascular BK channels made of Slo1 β1 subunits. Neuronal Slo1 β4 channels were just as well activated by DHA as vascular Slo1 β1 channels, but the stimulatory effect of DHA was much smaller in Slo1 β2, Slo1 LRRC26 (γ1), and Slo1 channels without auxiliary subunits.  Residues responsible for this response to DHA were identified (Hoshi et al. 2013). BK beta1 TMS2 is necessary for this subunit to enable ethanol-induced inhibition of myocyte BK channels and cerebral artery constriction at physiological Ca2+ and voltages (Kuntamallappanavar and Dopico 2017). After moderate or heavy drinking, the ethanol concentration in the blood is 30 - 60 mM.

Animals

Sloβ1 of Homo sapiens (Q16558)

 
8.A.14.1.3

Auxillary β-subunit (β2) of voltage-dependent and Ca2+ sensitive K+ channel (MaxiK; 1.A.1.3.2) The increased current reduces excitability (Wallner et al., 1999). 44% identical to TC#8.A.14.1.4). Full=BK channel subunit beta-2; Short=BKbeta2; Short=Hbeta2; AltName: Full=Calcium-activated potassium channel, subfamily M subunit beta-2; AltName: Full=Charybdotoxin receptor subunit beta-2; AltName: Full=Hbeta3; AltName: Full=K(VCA)beta-2; AltName: Full=Maxi K channel subunit beta-2; AltName: Full=Slo-beta-2. Coexpression of KCNMB2 with the human pore-forming alpha subunit of the large conductance voltage and Ca2+-activated K+ channel (hSlo) yields inactivating currents similar to those observed in hippocampal neurons.  β2 not only influences hSlo currents but also limits hSlo surface expression levels via an endocytic mechanism (Zarei et al. 2007).

Animals

β2 of Homo sapiens (Q9Y691)

 
8.A.14.1.4

Auxillary β subunit (β3) of voltage-dependent and Ca2+ sensitive K+ channel (MaxiK; 1.A.1.3.2) (Brenner et al., 2000).  44% identical to TC# 8.A.14.1.3.

Animals

β3 of Homo sapiens (Q9NPA1)

 
Examples:

TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample