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9.B.278.1.4
AP2 clathrin adaptor complex, AP2A1, A2, B1, M1, S1.  Adaptor protein complexes function in protein transport via transport vesicles in different membrane traffic pathways and are vesicle coat components that appear to be involved in cargo selection and vesicle formation (Nakatsu and Ohno 2003). AP-2 is involved in clathrin-dependent endocytosis in which cargo proteins are incorporated into vesicles surrounded by clathrin (clathrin-coated vesicles, CCVs) which are destined for fusion with the early endosome (Owen et al. 2004). The clathrin lattice serves as a mechanical scaffold but is itself unable to bind directly to membrane components; AP2 directly regulates PAR1 trafficking, (Paing et al. 2006). Clathrin-associated adaptor protein (AP) complexes, which can bind directly to both the clathrin lattice and to the lipid and protein components of membranes, are considered to be the major clathrin adaptors contributing to CCV formation. AP-2 also serves as a cargo receptor to selectively sort the membrane proteins involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis and seems to play a role in the recycling of synaptic vesicle membranes from the presynaptic surface. AP-2 recognizes Y-X-X-[FILMV] (Y-X-X-Phi) and [ED]-X-X-X-L-[LI] endocytosis signal motifs within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane cargo molecules. AP-2 may also play a role in maintaining normal post-endocytic trafficking through the ARF6-regulated, non-clathrin pathway (Lau and Chou 2008). During long-term potentiation in hippocampal neurons, AP-2 is responsible for the endocytosis of ADAM10 (Marcello et al. 2013). The AP-2 mu subunit binds to transmembrane cargo proteins and recognizes the Y-X-X-Phi motifs. The surface region interacting with the Y-X-X-Phi motif is inaccessible in cytosolic AP-2, but becomes accessible through a conformational change following phosphorylation of AP-2 mu subunit at 'Tyr-156' in membrane-associated AP-2 (Partlow et al. 2019). Subunits α1, α2 and β appear to be homologous.

Accession Number:O95782
Protein Name:AP-2 complex subunit alpha-1
Length:977
Molecular Weight:107546.00
Species:Homo sapiens (Human) [9606]
Number of TMSs:3
Location1 / Topology2 / Orientation3: Cell membrane1
Substrate protein

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FASTA formatted sequence
1:	MPAVSKGDGM RGLAVFISDI RNCKSKEAEI KRINKELANI RSKFKGDKAL DGYSKKKYVC 
61:	KLLFIFLLGH DIDFGHMEAV NLLSSNKYTE KQIGYLFISV LVNSNSELIR LINNAIKNDL 
121:	ASRNPTFMCL ALHCIANVGS REMGEAFAAD IPRILVAGDS MDSVKQSAAL CLLRLYKASP 
181:	DLVPMGEWTA RVVHLLNDQH MGVVTAAVSL ITCLCKKNPD DFKTCVSLAV SRLSRIVSSA 
241:	STDLQDYTYY FVPAPWLSVK LLRLLQCYPP PEDAAVKGRL VECLETVLNK AQEPPKSKKV 
301:	QHSNAKNAIL FETISLIIHY DSEPNLLVRA CNQLGQFLQH RETNLRYLAL ESMCTLASSE 
361:	FSHEAVKTHI DTVINALKTE RDVSVRQRAA DLLYAMCDRS NAKQIVSEML RYLETADYAI 
421:	REEIVLKVAI LAEKYAVDYS WYVDTILNLI RIAGDYVSEE VWYRVLQIVT NRDDVQGYAA 
481:	KTVFEALQAP ACHENMVKVG GYILGEFGNL IAGDPRSSPP VQFSLLHSKF HLCSVATRAL 
541:	LLSTYIKFIN LFPETKATIQ GVLRAGSQLR NADVELQQRA VEYLTLSSVA STDVLATVLE 
601:	EMPPFPERES SILAKLKRKK GPGAGSALDD GRRDPSSNDI NGGMEPTPST VSTPSPSADL 
661:	LGLRAAPPPA APPASAGAGN LLVDVFDGPA AQPSLGPTPE EAFLSELEPP APESPMALLA 
721:	DPAPAADPGP EDIGPPIPEA DELLNKFVCK NNGVLFENQL LQIGVKSEFR QNLGRMYLFY 
781:	GNKTSVQFQN FSPTVVHPGD LQTQLAVQTK RVAAQVDGGA QVQQVLNIEC LRDFLTPPLL 
841:	SVRFRYGGAP QALTLKLPVT INKFFQPTEM AAQDFFQRWK QLSLPQQEAQ KIFKANHPMD 
901:	AEVTKAKLLG FGSALLDNVD PNPENFVGAG IIQTKALQVG CLLRLEPNAQ AQMYRLTLRT 
961:	SKEPVSRHLC ELLAQQF