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H+-translocating F-type ATPase. Evidence of the proximity of ATP synthase subunit 6 is in proximity to the membrane in the supramolecular form (Velours et al., 2011).  The structure of the intact monomeric ATP synthase from the fungus, Pichia angusta, has been solved by electron cryo-microscopy (Vinothkumar et al. 2016). The Mg2+ and Ca2+-dependent enzymes are both active, but exhibit quite different behaviors (Nesci et al. 2017). Dimerization is necessary to create the inner membrane folds (cristae) characteristic of mitochondria.  Using cryo-electron microscopy, Guo et al. 2017 determined the structure of the dimeric FO complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae at a resolution of 3.6 angstroms. The structure clarifies how the protons travel through the complex, how the complex dimerizes, and how the dimers bend the membrane to produce cristae. The crystal structure of the c-subunit ring with bound oligomycin revealed the inhibitor docked on the outer face of the proton-binding sites, deep in the transmembrane region (Zhou and Faraldo-Gómez 2018). A high resolution (3.7 Å) structure of the entire monomeric ATPase has been solved by cryo EM, suggesting how it is inhibited by oligomycin (Srivastava et al. 2018).  Absence of the e and g subunits decreases conductance of the F-ATP synthase channel about tenfold. Ablation of the first TMS of subunit b, which creates a distinct lateral domain with e and g, further affected channel activity. Thus, F-ATP synthase e, g and b subunits create a domain within the membrane that is critical for the generation of the high-conductance channel that is a prime candidate for formation of the permeability transition pore (PTP). Subunits e and g are only present in eukaryotes and may have evolved to confer this novel function to F-ATP synthases (Carraro et al. 2018). The translation rate of all yeast mitochondrial mRNAs, including all F-type ATPase subunits has been studied (Chicherin et al. 2021). Attenuated ADP-inhibition of F0F1 ATPase mitigates manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction in yeast (Lapashina et al. 2022).

Accession Number:Q12165
Protein Name:ATP16 aka ATPD aka YDL004W aka YD8119.03 aka D2935
Molecular Weight:17020.00
Species:Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) [4932]
Location1 / Topology2 / Orientation3: Mitochondrion1
Substrate hydron

Cross database links:

DIP: DIP-3032N
RefSeq: NP_010280.1   
Entrez Gene ID: 851560   
Pfam: PF02823   
KEGG: sce:YDL004W   

Gene Ontology

GO:0005756 C:mitochondrial proton-transporting ATP synth...
GO:0046933 F:hydrogen ion transporting ATP synthase acti...
GO:0046961 F:proton-transporting ATPase activity, rotati...
GO:0015986 P:ATP synthesis coupled proton transport

References (5)

[1] “ATP synthase of yeast mitochondria. Isolation of the F1 delta subunit, sequence and disruption of the structural gene.”  Giraud   8026496
[2] “The nucleotide sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome IV.”  Jacq   9169867
[3] “Approaching a complete repository of sequence-verified protein-encoding clones for Saccharomyces cerevisiae.”  Hu   17322287
[4] “Profiling phosphoproteins of yeast mitochondria reveals a role of phosphorylation in assembly of the ATP synthase.”  Reinders   17761666
[5] “Molecular architecture of the rotary motor in ATP synthase.”  Stock   10576729
2HLD   3FKS   2WPD   2XOK   3OE7   3OEE   3OEH   3OFN   3ZIA   3ZRY   [...more]

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