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1.A.132.  The Azolectin:Cytochrome C Pore (ACCP) Family 

The study of the electrical parameters of asolectin bilayer lipid membranes in the presence of cytochrome c (cyt c) at various concentrations showed that an increase in the concentration of cyt c leads to an increase in the membrane conductance and the appearance of through pores. The studied membranes did not contain cardiolipin, which is commonly used in studying the effect of cyt c on membrane permeability. In the presence of cyt c, discrete current fluctuations were recorded. The occurrence of these fluctuations may be associated with the formation of through pores. The diameter of these pores was ~0.8 nm, which is smaller than the size of the cyt c globule (~3 nm). Measurements carried out at pH values from 6.4 to 8.4 showed that the concentration dependence of the membrane conductance increased with increasing pH. To assess the binding of cyt c to the bilayer, Anosov et al. 2023 measured the concentration and pH dependences of the difference in surface potentials induced by the unilateral addition of cyt c. The amount of bound cyt c at the same concentrations decreased with increasing pH, which did not correspond to the conductance trend. An analysis of conductance traces led to the conclusion that an increase in the integral conductance of membranes is associated with an increase in the lifetime of the pores. The formation of "long-lived" pores, of which the residence time in the open state is longer than in the closed state, was achieved at various combinations of pHs and cyt c concentrations: the higher the pH, the lower the concentration at which the long-lived pores appeared and, accordingly, a higher conductance was observed. The increase in conductance and the formation of transmembrane pores were not due to the electrostatic interaction between cyt c and the membrane. Anosov et al. 2023 hypothesized that an increase in pH leads to a weakening of hydrogen bonds between lipid heads, which allows cyt c molecules to penetrate into the membrane. This disrupts the order of the bilayer and leads to the occurrence of through pores.

References associated with 1.A.132 family:

Anosov, A., E. Borisova, E. Smirnova, E. Korepanova, and A. Osipov. (2023). Effect of Cytochrome C on the Conductance of Asolectin Membranes and the Occurrence of Through Pores at Different pHs. Membranes (Basel) 13:. 36984655