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1.D.200. The Polystyrene Nanoparticle Ion-selective Pore (PS-NPP) Family 

Surface-functionalized polystyrene Nnanoparticles alter the transmembrane potential via ion-selective pores, maintaining global bilayer integrity. Perini et al. 2022 investigated the interaction between polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) and phospholipid membranes. PS NPs adsorb onto lipid bilayers, creating soft inhomogeneous films that include disordered defects. PS NPs form an integral part of the generated channels, so that the surface functionalization and charge of the NP determine the pore conductive properties. The large difference in size between the NP diameter and the lipid bilayer thickness  (approximately 60 vs approximately 5 nm). Perini et al. 2022 suggested a particular and complex lipid-NP assembly that is able to maintain overall membrane integrity. They suggested that NP-induced toxicity in cells could operate in more subtle ways than membrane disintegration, such as inducing lipid reorganization and transmembrane ionic fluxes that disrupt the membrane potential.

References associated with 1.D.200 family:

Perini, D.A., E. Parra-Ortiz, I. Varó, M. Queralt-Martín, M. Malmsten, and A. Alcaraz. (2022). Surface-Functionalized Polystyrene Nanoparticles Alter the Transmembrane Potential via Ion-Selective Pores Maintaining Global Bilayer Integrity. Langmuir 38: 14837-14849. 36417698