1.D.235. The Amphiphilic Nucleic Acids (ANA) Family
Nucleic acid amphiphiles, referring to nucleic acids modified with large hydrophobic groups, have been widely used in programmable bioengineering. Since nucleic acids are intrinsically hydrophilic, the hydrophobic groups endow nucleic acid amphiphiles with unique properties, such as self-assembling, interactions with artificial or biological membranes, and transmembrane transport. The hybridization or target binding capability of an oligonucleotide supplies nucleic acid amphiphiles with excellent programmability. As a result, this type of molecule has attracted attention in academic studies and has potential for further applications. For a comprehensive understanding of nucleic acid amphiphiles, Gubu et al. 2023 reviewed nucleic acid amphiphiles from their molecular design to final applications, in which they summarize the synthetic strategies for nucleic acid amphiphiles and draw attention to their unique properties in different contexts. A summary of the applications of nucleic acid amphiphiles in drug development, bioengineering, and bioanalysis are discussed (Gubu et al. 2023).