1.O.6. The Nanoparticle-mediated Photoporation (NmPP) Family
There are several types of nanoparticles that can cause macromolecules (and smaller molecules) to enter cells. There is, for example, (1) gold nanoparticle-mediated photoporation in which vapor nanobubbles outperform direct heating for delivering macromolecules in live cells (Xiong et al. 2014). As only a single nanosecond laser pulse is required for this method, vapor nanobubbles are an interesting photoporation mechanism that may prove useful for efficient high-throughput macromolecular delivery. (2) Surface functionalization with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) has been shown to improve the performance of graphene-based materials for safe and efficient intracellular delivery by laser-induced photoporation (Liu et al. 2020). Modification of graphene-based nanoparticles with PEG and especially PEI to enhance colloidal stability while retaining photoporation functionality provideS better colloidal stability in cell medium, resulting in more uniform transfection and overall increased efficiency. (3) Intracellular delivery of mRNA in adherent and suspension cells by vapor nanobubble (VNB) photoporation has proven to be effective (Raes et al. 2020). Thus, VNB photoporation is a gentle and efficient technology for intracellular mRNA delivery. (4) It has been found that serum protects cells and increases intracellular delivery of molecules by nanoparticle-mediated photoporation (Kumar et al. 2021). Interactions between amphiphilic domains of polymers with the cell membrane may help cells maintain viability, possibly by facilitating transmembrane pore closure. In this way, serum components or synthetic polymers can be used to increase intracellular delivery by nanoparticle-mediated photoporation while maintaining high cell viability. (5) INALLY, Kumar et al. 2021 optimized intracellular macromolecular delivery by nanoparticle-mediated photoporation, showing that long exposure at low laser fluence optimizes intracellular macromolecule delivery.