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2.B.43.  The Chalcogen-bonded Tellane Anion Carrier (CBT-AC) Family 

Lee et al. 2019 introduced transmembrane anion transport with pnictogen-bonding compounds and compared their characteristics with chalcogen- and halogen-bonding analogues. Tellurium-centered chalcogen bonds are at least as active as antimony-centered pnictogen bonds (TC# 1.D.110), whereas iodine-centered halogen bonds are 3 orders of magnitude less active. Irregular voltage-dependent single-channel currents, high gating charges, and efficient dye leakage support the formation of bulky, membrane-disruptive supramolecular amphiphiles. due to strong binding of anions to tris(perfluorophenyl)stibanes. In contrast, the chalcogen-bonding bis(perfluorophenyl)tellanes do not cause leakage and excel as carriers with nanomolar activity, with P(Cl-/Na+) = 10.4 for anion/cation selectivity and P(Cl-/NO3-) = 4.5 for anion selectivity. The selectivities are lower with pnictogen-bonding carriers  because their membrane-disturbing 3D structures also affect weaker binders ( P(Cl-/Na+) = 2.1, P(Cl-/NO3-) = 2.5). Their 2D structure, directionality, hydrophobicity, and support from proximal anion-pi interactions may contribute to the unique power of chalcogen bonds to transport anions across lipid bilayer membranes (Lee et al. 2019).

Synthetic supramolecular transmembrane anionophores are promising anticancer chemotherapeutics, but  key to their targeted application is achieving spatiotemporally controlled activity. Docker et al. 2023 reported a series of chalcogen-bonding diaryl tellurium-based transporters in which their anion binding potency and anionophoric activity are controlled through reversible redox cycling between Te oxidation states. This in situ reversible multistate switching allows for switching between ON and OFF anion transport, and is crucially achieved with biomimetic chemical redox couples (Docker et al. 2023).

References associated with 2.B.43 family:

Docker, A., T.G. Johnson, H. Kuhn, Z. Zhang, and M.J. Langton. (2023). Multistate Redox-Switchable Ion Transport Using Chalcogen-Bonding Anionophores. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 145: 2661-2668. 36652378
Lee, L.M., M. Tsemperouli, A.I. Poblador-Bahamonde, S. Benz, N. Sakai, K. Sugihara, and S. Matile. (2019). Anion Transport with Pnictogen Bonds in Direct Comparison with Chalcogen and Halogen Bonds. J. Am. Chem. Soc. [Epub: Ahead of Print] 30618243