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4.D.3 The Glycan Glucosyl Transferase (OpgH) Family

Growth rate and nutrient availability are the primary determinants of size in single-celled organisms: rapidly growing E. coli cells are more than twice as large as their slow growing counterparts. Hill et al. (2013) reported the identification of the glucosyltransferase OpgH as a nutrient-dependent regulator of E. coli cell size. During growth under nutrient-rich conditions, OpgH localizes to the nascent septal site, where it antagonizes assembly of the tubulin-like cell division protein FtsZ, delaying division and increasing cell size. OpgH may sequester FtsZ from growing polymers. OpgH is functionally analogous to UgtP, a Bacillus subtilis glucosyltransferase that inhibits cell division in a growth rate-dependent fashion. In a striking example of convergent evolution, OpgH and UgtP share no detectable sequence similarity, have distinct enzymatic activities, and appear to inhibit FtsZ assembly through different mechanisms. Comparative analysis of E. coli and B. subtilis revealed conserved aspects of growth rate regulation and cell size control that are likely to be broadly applicable. These include the conservation of uridine diphosphate glucose as a proxy for nutrient status and the use of moonlighting enzymes to couple growth rate-dependent phenomena to central metabolism. 

Cellulose synthesis and transport across the inner bacterial membrane is mediated by a complex of the membrane-integrated catalytic BcsA subunit and the membrane-anchored, periplasmic BcsB protein. Morgan et al. 2013 presented the crystal structure of a complex of BcsA and BcsB from Rhodobacter sphaeroides containing a translocating polysaccharide. The structure of the BcsA-BcsB translocation intermediate revealed the architecture of the cellulose synthase, demonstrated how BcsA forms a cellulose-conducting channel, and suggested a model for the coupling of cellulose synthesis and translocation in which the nascent polysaccharide is extended by one glucose molecule at a time.

Plant cellulose microfibrils are synthesized by a process that propels the cellulose synthase complex (CSC) through the plane of the plasma membrane. All catalytic subunits, known as cellulose synthase A (CESA) proteins, are S-acylated (Kumar et al. 2016). Analysis of Arabidopsis CESA7 revealed four cysteines in variable region 2 (VR2) and two cysteines at the carboxy terminus (CT) as S-acylation sites. Mutating both the VR2 and CT cysteines permits CSC assembly and trafficking to the Golgi but prevents localization to the plasma membrane. Estimates suggest that a single CSC contains more than 100 S-acyl groups, which greatly increase the hydrophobic nature of the CSC and likely influence its immediate membrane environment.

Cellulose synthase is a membrane-integrated processive glycosyltransferase that couples the elongation of the cellulose polymer with its translocation across the plasma membrane. Verma et al. 2023 presented substrate- and product-bound cryoEM structures of the homotrimeric cellulose synthase isoform-8 (CesA8) from hybrid aspen (poplar). UDP-glucose binds to a conserved catalytic pocket adjacent to the entrance to a transmembrane channel. The substrate's glucosyl unit is coordinated by conserved residues of the glycosyltransferase domain and amphipathic interface helices. Site-directed mutagenesis of a conserved gating loop capping the active site revealed its critical function for catalytic activity. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed prolonged interactions of the gating loop with the substrate molecule, particularly across its central conserved region. These transient interactions likely facilitate the proper positioning of the substrate molecule for glycosyl transfer and cellulose translocation (Verma et al. 2023).

References associated with 4.D.3 family:

Bashline, L., S. Li, and Y. Gu. (2014). The trafficking of the cellulose synthase complex in higher plants. Ann Bot 114: 1059-1067. 24651373
Dimitroff, G., A. Little, J. Lahnstein, J.G. Schwerdt, V. Srivastava, V. Bulone, R.A. Burton, and G.B. Fincher. (2016). (1,3;1,4)-β-Glucan Biosynthesis by the CSLF6 Enzyme: Position and Flexibility of Catalytic Residues Influence Product Fine Structure. Biochemistry 55: 2054-2061. 26967377
Hill, N.S., P.J. Buske, Y. Shi, and P.A. Levin. (2013). A moonlighting enzyme links Escherichia coli cell size with central metabolism. PLoS Genet 9: e1003663. 23935518
Jobling, S.A. (2015). Membrane pore architecture of the CslF6 protein controls (1-3,1-4)-β-glucan structure. Sci Adv 1: e1500069. 26601199
Kumar, M., R. Wightman, I. Atanassov, A. Gupta, C.H. Hurst, P.A. Hemsley, and S. Turner. (2016). S-Acylation of the cellulose synthase complex is essential for its plasma membrane localization. Science 353: 166-169. 27387950
Morgan, J.L., J. Strumillo, and J. Zimmer. (2013). Crystallographic snapshot of cellulose synthesis and membrane translocation. Nature 493: 181-186. 23222542
Morgan, J.L., J.T. McNamara, M. Fischer, J. Rich, H.M. Chen, S.G. Withers, and J. Zimmer. (2016). Observing cellulose biosynthesis and membrane translocation in crystallo. Nature. [Epub: Ahead of Print] 26958837
Purushotham, P., R. Ho, L. Yu, G.B. Fincher, V. Bulone, and J. Zimmer. (2022). Mechanism of mixed-linkage glucan biosynthesis by barley cellulose synthase-like CslF6 (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan synthase. Sci Adv 8: eadd1596. 36367939
Purushotham, P., S.H. Cho, S.M. Díaz-Moreno, M. Kumar, B.T. Nixon, V. Bulone, and J. Zimmer. (2016). A single heterologously expressed plant cellulose synthase isoform is sufficient for cellulose microfibril formation in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113: 11360-11365. 27647898
Verma, P., A.L. Kwansa, R. Ho, Y.G. Yingling, and J. Zimmer. (2023). Insights into substrate coordination and glycosyl transfer of poplar cellulose synthase-8. bioRxiv. 36798277
Verma, P., A.L. Kwansa, R. Ho, Y.G. Yingling, and J. Zimmer. (2023). Insights into substrate coordination and glycosyl transfer of poplar cellulose synthase-8. Structure. [Epub: Ahead of Print] 37572661
Watanabe, Y., M.J. Meents, L.M. McDonnell, S. Barkwill, A. Sampathkumar, H.N. Cartwright, T. Demura, D.W. Ehrhardt, A.L. Samuels, and S.D. Mansfield. (2015). Visualization of cellulose synthases in Arabidopsis secondary cell walls. Science 350: 198-203. 26450210
Zhang, L. and T.F. Mah. (2008). Involvement of a novel efflux system in biofilm-specific resistance to antibiotics. J. Bacteriol. 190: 4447-4452. 18469108
Zhang, X., Y. Xue, Z. Guan, C. Zhou, Y. Nie, S. Men, Q. Wang, C. Shen, D. Zhang, S. Jin, L. Tu, P. Yin, and X. Zhang. (2021). Structural insights into homotrimeric assembly of cellulose synthase CesA7 from Gossypium hirsutum. Plant Biotechnol J. [Epub: Ahead of Print] 33638282