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8.B.17 The Sea Anemone Peptide Toxin Class III (ShI) Family

Cnidaria (sea anemone, coral, jellyfish, and hydroid) toxins target voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels. The sodium channel toxin is a member of the Toxin-4 Superfamily. It binds specifically to the sodium channel (Nav), thereby delaying its inactivation during signal transduction. Thus it strongly stimulates mammalian cardiac muscle contraction.These toxins are reviewed by Moran et al., 2009. Cnidarian toxin families, including peptide neurotoxins (voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channel-targeting toxins: NaTxs and KTxs, respectively), pore-forming toxins (actinoporins, aerolysin-related toxins, and jellyfish toxins), and the newly discovered small cysteine-rich peptides (SCRiPs).

This family belongs to the: Huwentoxin Superfamily.

References associated with 8.B.17 family:

Columbus-Shenkar, Y.Y., M.Y. Sachkova, J. Macrander, A. Fridrich, V. Modepalli, A.M. Reitzel, K. Sunagar, and Y. Moran. (2018). Dynamics of venom composition across a complex life cycle. Elife 7:. 29424690
Fogh, R.H., W.R. Kem, and R.S. Norton. (1990). Solution structure of neurotoxin I from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. A nuclear magnetic resonance, distance geometry, and restrained molecular dynamics study. J. Biol. Chem. 265: 13016-13028. 1973932
Fraz√£o, B., V. Vasconcelos, and A. Antunes. (2012). Sea anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) toxins: an overview. Mar Drugs 10: 1812-1851. 23015776
Monastyrnaya, M.M., R.S. Kalina, and E.P. Kozlovskaya. (2022). The Sea Anemone Neurotoxins Modulating Sodium Channels: An Insight at Structure and Functional Activity after Four Decades of Investigation. Toxins (Basel) 15:. 36668828
Moran, Y., D. Gordon, and M. Gurevitz. (2009). Sea anemone toxins affecting voltage-gated sodium channels--molecular and evolutionary features. Toxicon 54: 1089-1101. 19268682
Moran, Y., G. Genikhovich, D. Gordon, S. Wienkoop, C. Zenkert, S. Ozbek, U. Technau, and M. Gurevitz. (2012). Neurotoxin localization to ectodermal gland cells uncovers an alternative mechanism of venom delivery in sea anemones. Proc Biol Sci 279: 1351-1358. 22048953
Moran, Y., H. Weinberger, A.M. Reitzel, J.C. Sullivan, R. Kahn, D. Gordon, J.R. Finnerty, and M. Gurevitz. (2008). Intron retention as a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism of neurotoxin expression at early life stages of the starlet anemone Nematostella vectensis. J. Mol. Biol. 380: 437-443. 18538344
Sachkova, M.Y., S.A. Singer, J. Macrander, A.M. Reitzel, S. Peigneur, J. Tytgat, and Y. Moran. (2019). The Birth and Death of Toxins with Distinct Functions: A Case Study in the Sea Anemone Nematostella. Mol Biol Evol 36: 2001-2012. 31134275