8.B.32. The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-targeting Alpha-Conotoxin (A-Conotoxin) Family
α-Conotoxins bind to neuronal and muscular nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and inhibit them. These toxins block neuronal mammalian nAChRs (alpha-6/alpha-3-beta-2-beta-3 (0.39 nM) > alpha-3-beta-2 > alpha-3-beta-4 = alpha-4-beta-2) (Cartier et al. 1996; Kuryatov et al. 2000; McIntosh et al. 2004; Shiembob et al. 2006). In addition, specific members of the family bind to and influence the activities of GABAB GPCRs, K+ channels, and neuronal VGSCs (Robinson and Norton 2014).