The Inhibitor of Protein Kinase (IPK) Family
A wide variety of peptide macrocyclic compounds, forexample, indolocarbazoles, (Restituyo et al. 2015) are effective inhibitors of many protein kinases because they bind to the ATP binding sites of the kinases. They include V-Src, Thr/Ser kinases, PKCs, cyclic AMP-dependent kinases, checkpoint kinases, etc (Yogarajah and Stone 2018). These compounds include staurosporine, midostaurin, wortmannin, quercetin, myricetin, Ly294002 and many others (Stone et al. 2018). They influence the ionic compositions of mitochondria and the cytoplasm and seem to dissipate the mitochondrial membrane potential (Arrebola et al. 2005). They may do so by direct or indirect means. Several of them have been used as anticancer drugs (Yogarajah and Stone 2018). Some of these drugs are made by Streptomyces species such as Streptomyces clavuligerus which makes staurosporine (Nakano and Omura 2009).