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9.B.101 The Cytotoxin-associated Gene Product (CagA) Family

Sequence analyses of the virulence determinant CagA revealed three main groups strikingly similar to the three groups of VacA sequences (see TC family 1.C.9). Thus, positive selection has shaped the phylogenetic structure of VacA and CagA, and each of these virulence determinants has evolved separately from the core genome. CagA may also be related to members of the Bacillus thuringiensis Vegetative Insecticidal Protein-3 (Vip3) Family (e.g., 1.C.105.2.2).

Hydrogen oxidation provides an alternative high-energy substrate for some pathogens. Wang et al. 2016 demonstrated roles of H2 oxidation in energizing transport of CagA, a carcinogenic toxin.

References associated with 9.B.101 family:

Gangwer, K.A., C.L. Shaffer, S. Suerbaum, D.B. Lacy, T.L. Cover, and S.R. Bordenstein. (2010). Molecular evolution of the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating toxin gene vacA. J. Bacteriol. 192: 6126-6135. 20870762
Sibony, M. and N.L. Jones. (2012). Recent advances in Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 28: 30-35. 22157439
Wang, G., J. Romero-Gallo, S.L. Benoit, M.B. Piazuelo, R.L. Dominguez, D.R. Morgan, R.M. Peek, Jr, and R.J. Maier. (2016). Hydrogen Metabolism in Helicobacter pylori Plays a Role in Gastric Carcinogenesis through Facilitating CagA Translocation. MBio 7:. 27531909