9.B.420. The Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 2 (TREM2) Family
TREM2 forms a receptor signaling complex with TYROBP which mediates signaling and cell activation following ligand binding (Bouchon et al. 2000). It acts as a receptor for amyloid-beta protein 42, a cleavage product of the amyloid-beta precursor protein APP, and mediates its uptake and degradation by microglia (Yeh et al. 2016, Zhao et al. 2018). Binding to amyloid-beta 42 mediates microglial activation, proliferation, migration, apoptosis and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL6R and CCL3, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine ARG1. TREM2 acts as a receptor for lipoprotein particles such as LDL, VLDL, and HDL and for apolipoproteins such as APOA1, APOA2, APOB, APOE, APOE2, APOE3, APOE4, and CLU to enhance their uptake in microglia (Yeh et al. 2016). It also binds phospholipids (preferably anionic lipids) such as phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol and sphingomyelin (Sudom et al. 2018). It regulates microglial proliferation by acting as an upstream regulator of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling cascade, and is required for microglial phagocytosis of apoptotic neurons (Kleinberger et al. 2014).