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9.C.19.  The PolyPhenol Uptake (PPU) Family 

Polyphenol-rich lentil hull are a potential source of nutrients for animals. Among the bioaccessible polyphenols, catechin glucoside, kaempferol tetraglucoside, procyanidin dimers and dihydroxybenzoic acid-O-dipentoside were most efficiently transported across the caco-2 membrane, and responsible for promoting intestinal integrity as a result of enhanced expression of tight junction proteins.  When ingested by rats, lentil hull polyphenols underwent extensive I and II phase metabolic reactions in vivo, including hydroxylation, methylation, glucuronidation and sulfation. Thus, lentil hull polyphenols are bioaccessible and bioavailable, and lentil hulls as a by-product can be a valuable ingredient for future functional foods (Guo et al. 2023). The transport proteins have not been identified.

References associated with 9.C.19 family:

Guo, F., L. Peng, H. Xiong, R. Tsao, H. Zhang, L. Jiang, and Y. Sun. (2023). Bioaccessibility and transport of lentil hull polyphenols in vitro, and their bioavailability and metabolism in rats. Food Res Int 167: 112634. 37087206