1.A.95 The Ephemerovirus Viroporin (EVVP) Family 

Koolpinyah virus (KOOLV) isolated from healthy Australian cattle and Yata virus (YATV) isolated from a pool of Mansonia uniformis mosquitoes in the Central African Republic are related antigenically to kotonkon virus, an ephemerovirus that has caused an ephemeral fever-like illness in cattle in Nigeria. The complete genome sequences of KOOLV (16,133 nt) and YATV (14,479 nt) revealed complex genome organisations, with multiple genes, including a viroporin (α1) gene, between the G and L genes as is characteristic of ephemeroviruses (Blasdell et al. 2014). 

The 10.5-kDa α1 protein of bovine ephemerovirus is expressed in infected cells and has the properties of a viroporin (Joubert et al. 2014). Expression of a BEFV α1-maltose binding protein (MBP) fusion protein in Escherichia coli was observed to inhibit cell growth and increase membrane permeability to hygromycin B. Increased membrane permeability was also observed in BEFV-infected mammalian cells (but not cells infected with an α1-deficient BEFV strain) and in cells expressing a BEFV α1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein, which was shown by confocal microscopy to localize to the Golgi complex.  The full-length α1 interacts specifically with importin β1 and importin 7 but not with importin α3. These data suggest that, in addition to its function as a viroporin, BEFV α1 may modulate components of nuclear trafficking pathways (Joubert et al. 2014).

This family belongs to the Phospholemman/SIMP/Viroporin (PSV) Superfamily.



Blasdell, K.R., S.G. Widen, S.M. Diviney, C. Firth, T.G. Wood, H. Guzman, E.C. Holmes, R.B. Tesh, N. Vasilakis, and P.J. Walker. (2014). Koolpinyah and Yata viruses: two newly recognised ephemeroviruses from tropical regions of Australia and Africa. Vet Microbiol 174: 547-553.

Joubert, D.A., K.R. Blasdell, M.D. Audsley, L. Trinidad, P. Monaghan, K.A. Dave, K.G. Lieu, R. Amos-Ritchie, D.A. Jans, G.W. Moseley, J.J. Gorman, and P.J. Walker. (2014). Bovine ephemeral fever rhabdovirus α1 protein has viroporin-like properties and binds importin β1 and importin 7. J. Virol. 88: 1591-1603.


TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample

Alpha1 protein of 88 aas and 1 TMS

α1 protein of Bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV)


Alpha1 protein of 105 aas and 1 TMS

α1 protein of Kimberley virus


Alpha1 homologue of 85 aas and 1 TMS

α1 protein of Iriri virus


Alpha1 protein of 91 aas and 1 TMS

α1 protein homologue of Curionopolis virus


Alpha1 homologue of 88 aas and 1 TMS

α1 protein of Berrimah virus


TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample

Alpha1 homologue of 103 aas and 1 TMS.

α1 protein of Kamese virus


Putative viroporin of 120 aas and 1 or 2 TMSs

Putative viroporin of Flanders virus


Alpha1 protein homologue of 105 aas and 1 TMS

α1 protein homologue of Gray Lodge virus


Uncharacterized protein, U3, of 109 aas and 1 TMS.

U3 of Tibrogargan virus (TIBV)


Uncharacterized protein of 120 aas and 1 or 2 TMSs

UP of Hart Park virus