1.E.63.  The Actinobacterial Phage Holin (AP-Holin) Family  

A Streptomyces avermitilis bacteriophage, phiSASD1, expresses ORF40 and ORF19, predicted to be an endolysin (termed LytSD) and a holin (termed HolSD), respectively, two phage proteins involved in host lysis. The yield of LytSD was 17.2 mg per liter of culture. When applied exogenously, LytSD lysed 7/18 of the tested bacterial strains, including S. avermitilis, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, and Enterococcus faecalis. As regards HolSD, it resulted in growth inhibition of several tested strains and abrupt lysis of E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. It complemented the defective λ S allele of non-suppressing E. coli strains to produce phage plaques. Thus, the functions of ORF40 and ORF19 of phage phiSASD1 are established (Lu et al. 2019).


 

References:

Lu, N., Y. Sun, Q. Wang, Y. Qiu, Z. Chen, Y. Wen, S. Wang, and Y. Song. (2019). Cloning and characterization of endolysin and holin from Streptomyces avermitilis bacteriophage phiSASD1 as potential novel antibiotic candidates. Int J Biol Macromol. [Epub: Ahead of Print]

Examples:

TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample
1.E.63.1.1

Characterized holin, Gp19 or HolSD of 76 aas and 2 TMSs (Lu et al. 2019).

Gp19 or HolSD of Streptomyces phage phiSASD1

 
1.E.63.1.10

Putative holin of 75 aas and 2 TMSs

Holin of Streptomyces aidingensis

 
1.E.63.1.11

Putative holin of 78 aas and 2 TMSs

Holin of Saccharothrix variisporea

 
1.E.63.1.12

Gp19 holin of 76 aas and 2 TMSs.

Gp19 of Streptomyces phage phiSASD1

 
1.E.63.1.2

Uncharacterized holin homologue of 78 aas and 2 TMSs.

Holin of Actinoplanes italicus

 
1.E.63.1.3

Putative holin of 100 aas and 2 TMSs.

Holin of Micromonospora aurantiaca

 
1.E.63.1.4

Putative holin of 83 aas and 2 TMSs

Holin of Salinispora pacifica

 
1.E.63.1.5

Putative holin of 77 aas and 2 TMSs.

Holin of Thermoactinospora rubra

 
1.E.63.1.6

Putative holin of 83 aas and 2 TMSs

Holin of Amycolatopsis sp. CFH S0078

 
1.E.63.1.7

Putative holin of 70 aas and 2 TMSs

Holin of Streptomyces albidoflavus

 
1.E.63.1.8

Putative holin of 73 aas and 2 TMSs/

Holin of Catenulispora sp.

 
1.E.63.1.9

Putative holin of 77 aas and 2 TMSs.

Holin of Ornithinicoccus sp. YJ01