1.E.68.  The Holin of Phage SGF2 (H-PSGF2) Family 

Phages and their encoded lytic proteins have great advantages in sterilization, and all exhibited significant potential for reducing bacterial resistance. The bactericidal efficacy of three Shigella phages (SSE1, SGF2, and SGF3) and two lytic proteins (LysSSE1 and HolSSE1). Lu et al. 2023 investigated the bactericidal effects on planktonic bacteria and bacterial biofilms. A combined sterilisation application of antibiotics, phages, and lytic proteins was performed. The results showed that phages and lytic proteins had better sterilization effects than antibiotics with 1/2 minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), and their effect was further improved when used together with antibiotics. The best synergy was shown when combined with β- lactam antibiotics, which might be related to their mechanism of sterilizing action. This approach ensures a bactericidal effect at low antibiotic concentrations (Lu et al. 2023).



Lu, H., Z. Li, A. Elbaz, and S.Q. Ni. (2023). Synergistic action of phages and lytic proteins with antibiotics: a combination strategy to target bacteria and biofilms. BMC Microbiol 23: 149.


TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample

Holin of 72 aas and 1 N-terminal TMS. This protein is nearly identical to and the same length as the holin of Shigella phage SGF2 (Lu et al. 2023).

Holin of Escherichia phage phiEco32


Uncharacterized putative holin of 72 aas and 1 N-terminal TMS.  It is ~ 70% identical to TC# 1.E.68.1.1.

UP of Escherichia phage 4E8