2.B.99.  The Copper Ion Complexing Dithiocarbamate (Dithiocarbamate) Family 

These organic dithiocarbamates comprise of family of structurally related agents that can serve as ionophores, allowing the transport of heavey metals such as Cu2+ across cellular and organellar membranes (Ding and Lind 2009). Copper complexes feature among non-platinum compounds which have shown promising potential as effective anticancer drugs (Njenga et al. 2023). Cancer cells can alter their copper homeostatic processes to develop resistance to platinum-based treatments, and this leads to poaaibiities that some copper compounds can re-sensitize cancer cells to such drugs. Njenga et al. 2023 reviewed copper and copper complexes bearing dithiocarbamate ligands which may be anticancer agents. Dithiocarbamate ligands act as effective ionophores to convey the complexes of interest into cells, thereby influencing the metal homeostatic balance and inducing apoptosis. The authors focus on copper homeostasis in mammalian cells and on the current understanding of copper dysregulation in cancer ans well as recent therapeutic breakthroughs using copper coordination complexes as anticancer drugs. They also discuss the molecular foundation of the mechanisms underlying their anticancer action. 



Ding, W.Q. and S.E. Lind. (2009). Metal ionophores - an emerging class of anticancer drugs. IUBMB Life 61: 1013-1018.

Njenga, L.W., S.N. Mbugua, R.A. Odhiambo, and M.O. Onani. (2023). Addressing the gaps in homeostatic mechanisms of copper and copper dithiocarbamate complexes in cancer therapy: a shift from classical platinum-drug mechanisms. Dalton Trans 52: 5823-5847.