9.B.356.  The TMEM31 (TMEM31) Family 

Multiepitope cancer vaccines may be the future for melanoma treatment. Highly immunogenic regions of transmembrane protein 31 (TMEM31) were selected according to cytotoxic T lymphocytes' (CTL) epitopes and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) binding affinity through in silico analyses. The 32-62, 77-105, and 125-165 residues of the TMEM31 were selected as the immunodominant fragments. They were linked together by RVRR and HEYGAEALERAG motifs to improve epitope separation and presentation. To activate helper T lymphocytes (HTL), the Pan HLA DR-binding epitope (PADRE) peptide sequence and tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFrC) were incorporated into the final construct (Safavi et al. 2019). Also, the Beta-defensin conserved domain was utilized in the final construct as a novel adjuvant for Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor (TLR4-MD) activation. The CTL epitopes, cleavage sites, post-translational modifications, TAP transport efficiency, and B cells epitopes were predicted for the peptide vaccine. The final construct contained multiple CTL and B cell epitopes. In addition, it showed 93.55% and 99.13% population coverage in the world for HLA I and HLA II, respectively.



Safavi, A., A. Kefayat, A. Abiri, E. Mahdevar, A.H. Behnia, and F. Ghahremani. (2019). In silico analysis of transmembrane protein 31 (TMEM31) antigen to design novel multiepitope peptide and DNA cancer vaccines against melanoma. Mol Immunol 112: 93-102.


TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample

TMEM31 of 168 aas and possibly 3 C-terminal TMSs.

TMEM31 of Homo sapiens