9.B.413.  The TMEM119 (TMEM119) Family 

TMEM119 plays an important role in bone formation and normal bone mineralization and promotes the differentiation of myoblasts into osteoblasts (Kanamoto et al. 2009). It may induce the commitment and differentiation of myoblasts into osteoblasts through an enhancement of BMP2 production and interaction with the BMP-RUNX2 pathway. It also upregulates the expression of ATF4, a transcription factor which plays a central role in osteoblast differentiation, and is essential for normal spermatogenesis and late testicular differentiation.  It is a cell surface biomarker for microglia (Kumar et al. 2021).



Kanamoto, T., K. Mizuhashi, K. Terada, T. Minami, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Furukawa. (2009). Isolation and characterization of a novel plasma membrane protein, osteoblast induction factor (obif), associated with osteoblast differentiation. BMC Dev Biol 9: 70.

Kumar, A., S. Kim, Y. Su, M. Sharma, P. Kumar, S. Singh, J. Lee, C.M. Furdui, R. Singh, F.C. Hsu, J. Kim, C.T. Whitlow, M.A. Nader, and G. Deep. (2021). Brain cell-derived exosomes in plasma serve as neurodegeneration biomarkers in male cynomolgus monkeys self-administrating oxycodone. EBioMedicine 63: 103192.

Raven, J.A. (2020). Determinants, and implications, of the shape and size of thylakoids and cristae. J Plant Physiol. 257: 153342. [Epub: Ahead of Print]


TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample

TMEM119 protein of 283 aas and 2 TMSs, one N-terminal and one at about residue 100.  See family description for functions and known details

TMEM119 of Homo sapiens


Transmembrane protein 119, TMEM119, of 233 aas and 2 TMSs, the first, N-terminal, and the second at residues 90 to 110.

TMEM119 of Electrophorus electricus (electric eel)


Uncharacterized protein of 227 aas and 2 TMSs.

UP of Clupea harengus (Atlantic herring)