9.B.435.  The Stimulator of Interferon Genes Protein (STING) Family 

STING is a facilitator of innate immune signaling that acts as a sensor of cytosolic DNA from bacteria and viruses and promotes the production of type I interferon (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) (Ishikawa and Barber 2008Shang et al. 2019). Moreover, an alternatively spliced STING isoform localizes in the cytoplasmic membrane and directly senses extracellular cGAMP (Li et al. 2022) (see 2.A.48.1.1).


 

References:

Ishikawa, H. and G.N. Barber. (2008). STING is an endoplasmic reticulum adaptor that facilitates innate immune signalling. Nature 455: 674-678.

Li, X., Y. Zhu, X. Zhang, X. An, M. Weng, J. Shi, S. Wang, C. Liu, S. Luo, and T. Zheng. (2022). An alternatively spliced STING isoform localizes in the cytoplasmic membrane and directly senses extracellular cGAMP. J Clin Invest 132:.

Shang, G., C. Zhang, Z.J. Chen, X.C. Bai, and X. Zhang. (2019). Cryo-EM structures of STING reveal its mechanism of activation by cyclic GMP-AMP. Nature 567: 389-393.

Examples:

TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample
9.B.435.1.1

STING of 379 aas and either 4 or 6 probable TMSs in a 2 + 2 (+ 2) TMS arrangement.  This last two putative TMSs are not as hydrophobic as the first four. STING is a facilitator of innate immune signaling that acts as a sensor of cytosolic DNA from bacteria and viruses and promotes the production of type I interferons (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) (Ishikawa and Barber 2008Shang et al. 2019). Moreover, an alternatively spliced STING isoform localizes in the cytoplasmic membrane and directly senses extracellular cGAMP (Li et al. 2022) (see also 2.A.48.1.1).

STING of Homo sapiens

 
9.B.435.1.2

Stimulator of interferon genes protein-like, STING-L, isoform X2, of 315 aas and 4 - 6 TMSs.

STING-L of Colias croceus

 
9.B.435.1.3

Stimulator of interferon genes protein-like, STING-L of 370 aas and 4 or 6 TMSs.

STING-L of Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips)

 
9.B.435.1.4

Stimulator of interferon genes protein-like isoform X2 of 377 aas and 4 - 6 TMSs.

STING-X2 of Amphibalanus amphitrite

 
9.B.435.1.5

TMEM173 of 658 aas and an uncertain number of TMSs, possibly just one or two near the N-terminus of the protein.  This protein most resembles 9.B.435.1.1 in the region following the first four TMSs, and the region of 9.B.435.1.1, residues 154 - 360 is repeated in residues 120 - 310 and residues 510 - 640.

TMEM173 of Mytilus coruscus

 
9.B.435.1.6

Uncharacterized protein of 350 aas and at least 3 TMSs.

UP of Lucilia cuprina (Australian sheep blowfly)