|Name:||calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 1F subunit|
|PubMed (9344658):|| Fisher SE, Ciccodicola A, Tanaka K, Curci A, Desicato S, D'urso M, Craig IW. Sequence-based exon prediction around the synaptophysin locus reveals agene-rich area containing novel genes in human proximal Xp.Genomics. 1997 Oct 15;45(2):340-7. PMID: 9344658 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]|
The human Xp11.23-p11.22 interval has been implicated in several inherited diseases including Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome; three forms of X-linked hypercalciuric nephrolithiaisis; and the eye disorders retinitis pigmentosa 2, congenital stationary night blindness, and Aland Island eye disease. In constructing YAC contigs spanning Xp11. 23-p11.22, we have previously shown that the region around the synaptophysin (SYP) gene is refractory to cloning in YACs, but highly stable in cosmids. Preliminary analysis of the latter suggested that this might reflect a high density of coding sequences and we therefore undertook the complete sequencing of a SYP-containing cosmid. Sequence data were extensively analyzed using computer programs such as CENSOR (to mask repeats), BLAST (for homology searches), and GRAIL and GENE-ID (to predict exons). This revealed the presence of 29 putative exons, organized into three genes, in addition to the 7 exons of the complete SYP coding region, all mapping within a 44-kb interval. Two genes are novel, one (CACNA1F) showing high homology to alpha1 subunits of calcium channels, the other (LMO6) encoding a product with significant similarity to LIM-domain proteins. RT-PCR and Northern blot studies confirmed that these loci are indeed transcribed. The third locus is the previously described, but not previously localized, A4 differentiation-dependent gene. Given that the intron-exon boundaries predicted by the analysis are consistent with previous information where available, we have been able to suggest the genomic organization of the novel genes with some confidence. The region has an elevated GC content (>53%), and we identified CpG islands associated with the 5' ends of SYP, A4, and LMO6. The order of loci was Xpter-A4-LMO6-SYP-CACNA1F-Xcen, with intergenic distances ranging from approximately 300 bp to approximately 5 kb. The density of transcribed sequences in this area (>80%) is comparable to that found in the highly gene-rich chromosomal band Xq28. Further studies may aid our understanding of the long-range organization surrounding such gene-enriched regions.
|PubMed (9662400):|| Bech-Hansen NT, Naylor MJ, Maybaum TA, Pearce WG, Koop B, Fishman GA, MetsM, Musarella MA, Boycott KM. Loss-of-function mutations in a calcium-channel alpha1-subunit gene in Xp11.23cause incomplete X-linked congenital stationary night blindness.Nat Genet. 1998 Jul;19(3):264-7. PMID: 9662400 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]|
X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a recessive non-progressive retinal disorder characterized by night blindness, decreased visual acuity, myopia, nystagmus and strabismus. Two distinct clinical entities of X-linked CSNB have been proposed. Patients with complete CSNB show moderate to severe myopia, undetectable rod function and a normal cone response, whereas patients with incomplete CSNB show moderate myopia to hyperopia and subnormal but measurable rod and cone function. The electrophysiological and psychophysical features of these clinical entities suggest a defect in retinal neurotransmission. The apparent clinical heterogeneity in X-linked CSNB reflects the recently described genetic heterogeneity in which the locus for complete CSNB (CSNB1) was mapped to Xp11.4, and the locus for incomplete CSNB (CSNB2) was refined within Xp11.23 (ref. 5). A novel retina-specific gene mapping to the CSNB2 minimal region was characterized and found to have similarity to voltage-gated L-type calcium channel alpha1-subunit genes. Mutation analysis of this new alpha1-subunit gene, CACNA1F, in 20 families with incomplete CSNB revealed six different mutations that are all predicted to cause premature protein truncation. These findings establish that loss-of-function mutations in CACNA1F cause incomplete CSNB, making this disorder an example of a human channelopathy of the retina.
>sp|O60840|CAC1F_HUMAN Voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1F OS=Homo sapiens GN=CACNA1F PE=1 SV=2 MSESEGGKDTTPEPSPANGAGPGPEWGLCPGPPAVEGESSGASGLGTPKRRNQHSKHKTVAVASAQRSPRALFCLTLANP LRRSCISIVEWKPFDILILLTIFANCVALGVYIPFPEDDSNTANHNLEQVEYVFLVIFTVETVLKIVAYGLVLHPSAYIR NGWNLLDFIIVVVGLFSVLLEQGPGRPGDAPHTGGKPGGFDVKALRAFRVLRPLRLVSGVPSLHIVLNSIMKALVPLLHI ALLVLFVIIIYAIIGLELFLGRMHKTCYFLGSDMEAEEDPSPCASSGSGRACTLNQTECRGRWPGPNGGITNFDNFFFAM LTVFQCVTMEGWTDVLYWMQDAMGYELPWVYFVSLVIFGSFFVLNLVLGVLSGEFSKEREKAKARGDFQKQREKQQMEED LRGYLDWITQAEELDMEDPSADDNLGSMAEEGRAGHRPQLAELTNRRRGRLRWFSHSTRSTHSTSSHASLPASDTGSMTE TQGDEDEEEGALASCTRCLNKIMKTRVCRRLRRANRVLRARCRRAVKSNACYWAVLLLVFLNTLTIASEHHGQPVWLTQI QEYANKVLLCLFTVEMLLKLYGLGPSAYVSSFFNRFDCFVVCGGILETTLVEVGAMQPLGISVLRCVRLLRIFKVTRHWA SLSNLVASLLNSMKSIASLLLLLFLFIIIFSLLGMQLFGGKFNFDQTHTKRSTFDTFPQALLTVFQILTGEDWNVVMYDG IMAYGGPFFPGMLVCIYFIILFICGNYILLNVFLAIAVDNLASGDAGTAKDKGGEKSNEKDLPQENEGLVPGVEKEEEEG ARREGADMEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEGAGGVELLQEVVPKEKVVPIPEGSAFFCLSQTNPLRKGCHTLIHHHVFTNLILVF IILSSVSLAAEDPIRAHSFRNHILGYFDYAFTSIFTVEILLKMTVFGAFLHRGSFCRSWFNMLDLLVVSVSLISFGIHSS AISVVKILRVLRVLRPLRAINRAKGLKHVVQCVFVAIRTIGNIMIVTTLLQFMFACIGVQLFKGKFYTCTDEAKHTPQEC KGSFLVYPDGDVSRPLVRERLWVNSDFNFDNVLSAMMALFTVSTFEGWPALLYKAIDAYAEDHGPIYNYRVEISVFFIVY IIIIAFFMMNIFVGFVIITFRAQGEQEYQNCELDKNQRQCVEYALKAQPLRRYIPKNPHQYRVWATVNSAAFEYLMFLLI LLNTVALAMQHYEQTAPFNYAMDILNMVFTGLFTIEMVLKIIAFKPKHYFTDAWNTFDALIVVGSIVDIAVTEVNNGGHL GESSEDSSRISITFFRLFRVMRLVKLLSKGEGIRTLLWTFIKSFQALPYVALLIAMIFFIYAVIGMQMFGKVALQDGTQI NRNNNFQTFPQAVLLLFRCATGEAWQEIMLASLPGNRCDPESDFGPGEEFTCGSNFAIAYFISFFMLCAFLIINLFVAVI MDNFDYLTRDWSILGPHHLDEFKRIWSEYDPGAKGRIKHLDVVALLRRIQPPLGFGKLCPHRVACKRLVAMNMPLNSDGT VTFNATLFALVRTSLKIKTEGNLEQANQELRIVIKKIWKRMKQKLLDEVIPPPDEEEVTVGKFYATFLIQDYFRKFRRRK EKGLLGNDAAPSTSSALQAGLRSLQDLGPEMRQALTCDTEEEEEEGQEGVEEEDEKDLETNKATMVSQPSARRGSGISVS LPVGDRLPDSLSFGPSDDDRGTPTSSQPSVPQAGSNTHRRGSGALIFTIPEEGNSQPKGTKGQNKQDEDEEVPDRLSYLD EQAGTPPCSVLLPPHRAQRYMDGHLVPRRRLLPPTPAGRKPSFTIQCLQRQGSCEDLPIPGTYHRGRNSGPNRAQGSWAT PPQRGRLLYAPLLLVEEGAAGEGYLGRSSGPLRTFTCLHVPGTHSDPSHGKRGSADSLVEAVLISEGLGLFARDPRFVAL AKQEIADACRLTLDEMDNAASDLLAQGTSSLYSDEESILSRFDEEDLGDEMACVHAL