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1.A.83 The SV40 Virus Viroporin VP2 (SV40 VP2) Family

For nonenveloped viruses such as Simian Virus 40, the mechanism used to translocate viral components across membranes involves viroporins. The minor structural proteins, VP2 and VP3, which are products of the same gene and differ in that VP2 has 118 aas at the N-terminus that are lacking in VP3, apparently act as membrane proteins during infection. Giorda et al. (2012) purified VP2 and VP3, and both were found to form pores in host cell membranes. To identify possible membrane domains, individual hydrophobic domains from VP2 and VP3 were expressed in a model protein and tested for their ability to integrate into membranes. Several domains from the late proteins supported endoplasmic reticulum membrane insertion as transmembrane domains. Mutations in VP2 and VP3 were engineered that inhibited membrane insertion and pore formation. When these mutations were introduced into the viral genome, viral propagation was inhibited. Thus, the viroporin activities of VP2 and VP3 were inhibited by targeted disruptions of individual hydrophobic domains, and the loss of membrane disruption activity impaired viral infection (Giorda et al. 2012).

References associated with 1.A.83 family:

Chen, X.S., T. Stehle, and S.C. Harrison. (1998). Interaction of polyomavirus internal protein VP2 with the major capsid protein VP1 and implications for participation of VP2 in viral entry. EMBO. J. 17: 3233-3240. 9628860
Giorda KM., Raghava S., Zhang MW. and Hebert DN. (2013). The viroporin activity of the minor structural proteins VP2 and VP3 is required for SV40 propagation. J Biol Chem. 288(4):2510-20. 23223228
Raghava, S., K.M. Giorda, F.B. Romano, A.P. Heuck, and D.N. Hebert. (2011). The SV40 late protein VP4 is a viroporin that forms pores to disrupt membranes for viral release. PLoS Pathog 7: e1002116. 21738474
Raghava, S., K.M. Giorda, F.B. Romano, A.P. Heuck, and D.N. Hebert. (2013). SV40 late protein VP4 forms toroidal pores to disrupt membranes for viral release. Biochemistry 52: 3939-3948. 23651212
Scott, C. and S. Griffin. (2015). Viroporins: structure, function and potential as antiviral targets. J Gen Virol 96: 2000-2027. 26023149