TCDB is operated by the Saier Lab Bioinformatics Group
TCIDNameDomainKingdom/PhylumProtein(s)
8.A.136.1.1









β-arrestin, ARRB1, ARR1, of 418 aas. It functions in regulating agonist-mediated G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling by mediating both receptor desensitization and resensitization processes. activated GPCR undergoes inactivation or desensitization by phosphorylation and binding of β-arrestin resulting in diminution of downstream signals. The desensitized GPCRs are internalized into endosomes, wherein they undergo dephosphorylation or resensitization by  a protein phosphatase to be recycled back to the cell membrane as a naïve GPCR (Gupta et al. 2018). It also controls the locations and activities of certain transport proteins (see family description).

Eukaryota
Metazoa, Chordata
β-arrestin of Homo sapiens
8.A.136.1.2









Arrestin-2, ARRB2, ARR2, ARB2 of 421 aas.  See family description for functions. β-arrestin2 regulates the cardiac hERG/IKr potassium channel (TC# 1.A.1.20.1; Shi et al. 2019).

Eukaryota
Metazoa, Chordata
ARRB2 of Homo sapiens
8.A.136.1.3









Arrestin domain-containing protein 3-like of 423 aas.

Eukaryota
Metazoa, Chordata
Arrestin of Carassius auratus (goldfish)
8.A.136.1.4









Uncharacterized protein of 555 aas

Eukaryota
Metazoa, Platyhelminthes
UP of Protopolystoma xenopodis (roundworm)
8.A.136.1.5









Uncharacterized protein of 638 aas

Eukaryota
Metazoa, Platyhelminthes
UP of Taenia asiatica
8.A.136.1.6









Uncharacterized protein of 690 aas

Eukaryota
Fungi, Ascomycota
UP of Periconia macrospinosa
8.A.136.1.7









Uncharacterized protein of 457 aas

Eukaryota
UP of Sphaeroforma arctica
8.A.136.1.8









Uncharacterized protein of 599 aas

Eukaryota
Evosea
UP of Dictyostelium purpureum
8.A.136.1.9









Arrestin-1 of 776 aas

Eukaryota
Metazoa, Platyhelminthes
Arrestin-1 of Echinococcus granulosus
8.A.136.1.10









Arrestin domain-containing protein 3 of 484 aas

Eukaryota
Metazoa, Arthropoda
Arrestin 3 of Stomoxys calcitrans
8.A.136.1.11









Arrestin domain containing protein, ARRDC3, of 414 aas. It is an adapter protein that plays a role in regulating cell-surface expression of adrenergic receptors and other G protein-coupled receptors (Patwari et al. 2011, Han et al. 2013). It also plays a role in NEDD4-mediated ubiquitination and endocytosis af activated ADRB2 and subsequent ADRB2 degradation, and may recruit NEDD4 to ADRB2 (Nabhan et al. 2010). It also regulates uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1; TC# 2.A.29.3.2) expression in adipose tissue (Carroll et al. 2017).

Eukaryota
Metazoa, Chordata
ARRDC3 of Homo sapiens
8.A.136.1.12









Pleckstrin homology domain-containing family F member 1, PLEKHF1 oe Phafin2, of 279 aas and 1 or 2 N-terminal TMSs. It may induce apoptosis through the lysosomal-mitochondrial pathway. It also translocates to the lysosome, initiating the permeabilization of lysosomal membrane and resulting in the release of CTSD and CTSL to the cytoplasm. It triggers the caspase-independent apoptosis by altering mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) resulting in the release of PDCD8 (Chen et al. 2005). JIP4 and Phafin2 are components of a tubular recycling pathway that operates from macropinosomes (Tan et al. 2021).

 

Eukaryota
Metazoa, Chordata
Phafin2 of Homo sapiens
8.A.136.1.13









Endofin (Zinc finger FYVE domain-containing protein 16, ZFYVE16, also called the endosome-associated FYVE domain protein) (Seet and Hong 2001). It has a small central domain homologous to other members of this family. It may be involved in regulating membrane trafficking in the endosomal pathway. Overexpression induces endosome aggregation. It is required to target TOM1 to endosomes (Seet et al. 2004). It has phosphatidyl inositol and metal binding capabilities. It is required for HD-PTP and ESCRT-0 (TC# 3.A.31) interdependent endosomal sorting of ubiquitinated transmembrane cargoes (Kazan et al. 2021).

Eukaryota
Metazoa, Chordata
Endofin of Homo sapiens
8.A.136.1.14









Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), also known as thioredoxin-binding protein-2, is a member of the α-arrestin protein family and is regulated by several cellular stress factors. It is a 391 aa protein possibly with two TMSs, one near the N-terminus and one between residues 260 and 300. TXNIP overexpression coupled with thioredoxin inhibits its antioxidant functions, thereby increasing oxidative stress (Jiang et al. 2022). TXNIP is directly involved in inflammatory activation by interacting with Nod-like receptor protein 3 inflammasomes. Bone metabolic disorders are associated with aging, oxidative stress, and inflammation. They are characterized by an imbalance between bone formation involving osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts, and by chondrocyte destruction. The role of TXNIP in bone metabolic diseases has been extensively investigated. Jiang et al. 2022 discussed the roles of TXNIP in the regulatory mechanisms of transcription and protein levels and summarized its involvement in bone metabolic disorders such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. TXNIP is expressed in osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and chondrocytes, and it affects the differentiation and functioning of skeletal cells through both redox-dependent and redox-independent regulatory mechanisms (Jiang et al. 2022). It activates HSF1 (heat shock factor 1) in Brown adipose tissue (Waldhart et al. 2023).

Eukaryota
Metazoa, Chordata
TXNIP of Homo sapiens
8.A.136.1.15









ARRestin Domain protein, ARRD-6 of 442 aas and 0 or 1 TMS. This protein includes a single arrestin-like protein, arrestin domain protein-6 (ARRD-6), bound to a CALM-1 subunit in the TMC-1 complex (see TC# 1.A.17.4.7) (Jeong et al. 2022).

Eukaryota
Metazoa, Nematoda
ARRD-6 of Caenorhabditis elegans