1.N.9. The Fusexin1 (Fsx1) Family 

Moi et al. discovered archaeal fusexins homologous to eukaryotic HAP2/GCS1 gamete fusion proteins (Moi et al. 2022). Sexual reproduction consists of genome reduction by meiosis and subsequent gamete fusion. The presence of genes homologous to eukaryotic meiotic genes in archaea and bacteria suggests that DNA repair mechanisms evolved towards meiotic recombination. However, fusogenic proteins resembling those found in gamete fusion in eukaryotes had not been found in prokaryotes. Moi et al. 2022 identified archaeal proteins that are homologs of fusexins of animals, plants and viruses, a superfamily of fusogens that mediate eukaryotic gamete and somatic cell fusion, as well as virus entry. The crystal structure of a trimeric archaeal fusexin (Fusexin1 or Fsx1) reveals an archetypical fusexin architecture with unique features such as a six-helix bundle and an additional globular domain. Ectopically expressed Fusexin1 can fuse mammalian cells, and this process involves the additional globular domain and a conserved fusion loop. Furthermore, archaeal fusexin genes are found within integrated mobile elements, suggesting potential roles in cell-cell fusion and gene exchange in archaea, as well as different scenarios for the evolutionary history of fusexins.

 


 

References:

Moi, D., S. Nishio, X. Li, C. Valansi, M. Langleib, N.G. Brukman, K. Flyak, C. Dessimoz, D. de Sanctis, K. Tunyasuvunakool, J. Jumper, M. GraƱa, H. Romero, P.S. Aguilar, L. Jovine, and B. Podbilewicz. (2022). Discovery of archaeal fusexins homologous to eukaryotic HAP2/GCS1 gamete fusion proteins. Nat Commun 13: 3880.

Examples:

TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample
1.N.9.1.1

Fusexin1, Fsx1, of 631 aas and 4 TMSs, 1 at the N-terminus and 3 at the C-terminus. It exhibits fusogenic activity and mediates bilateral cell-cell fusion in mammalian cells. Its existence suggests that eukaryotic fusexins arose from prokaryotic fusexins (Moi et al. 2022).

Fsx1 of an uncultured archaeon

 
1.N.9.1.2

Uncharacterized protein of 630 aas and 4 TMSs in a 1 (N-terminus) + 3 (C-terminus) TMS arrangement.

Fuxexin homolog of Chlorobi bacterium

 
1.N.9.1.3

HAP2/GCS1 fusexin family protein of 605 aas and 3 TMSs, 1 at the N-terminus and 2 at the C-terminus.

Fusexin of Candidatus Marsarchaeota archaeon (mine drainage metagenome)