8.A.198.  The Salmonella Transmembrane Effector of the SPI-2 Type III Secretion System, SteD, (SteD) Family 

SteD is a transmembrane effector of the Salmonella SPI-2 type III secretion system that inhibits T cell activation by reducing the amounts of at least three proteins - the major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII), CD86 and CD97 - from the surface of antigen-presenting cells (Godlee et al. 2022). SteD specifically localizes to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and MHCII compartments. The targeting, membrane integration and trafficking of SteD have been studied, and distinct regions of SteD that are required for these processes have been determined. Godlee et al. 2022 showed that SteD integrates into membranes of the ER/Golgi through a two-step mechanism of membrane recruitment from the cytoplasm followed by integration. SteD then migrates to and accumulates within the TGN. From there, it hijacks the host adaptor protein (AP)1-mediated trafficking pathway from the TGN to MHCII compartments. AP1 binding and post-TGN trafficking require a short sequence in the N-terminal cytoplasmic tail of SteD that resembles the AP1-interacting dileucine sorting signal, but in inverted orientation, suggesting convergent evolution.



Godlee, C., O. Cerny, M. Liu, S. Blundell, A.E. Gallagher, M. Shahin, and D.W. Holden. (2022). The Salmonella transmembrane effector SteD hijacks AP1-mediated vesicular trafficking for delivery to antigen-loading MHCII compartments. PLoS Pathog 18: e1010252.


TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample

SteD of 111 aas and 2 adjacent C-terminal TMSs. (See family description; Godlee et al. 2022).

SecD of Salmonella type III secretion system


Uncharacterized protein of 111 aas and 2 TMSs.

UP of Salmonella enterica