9.B.204 The 4 TMS Ciliary Biogenesis TMEM17 (TMEM17) Family 

Mutations in TMEM17 cause defects in ciliogenesis (Li et al. 2016). TMEM17 proteins play a role in lung cancer (Zhang et al. 2017), prostate cancer (Takata et al. 2019) and breast cancer (Zhao et al. 2018). Most of these proteins have 4 or 5 TMSs.



Li, C., V.L. Jensen, K. Park, J. Kennedy, F.R. Garcia-Gonzalo, M. Romani, R. De Mori, A.L. Bruel, D. Gaillard, B. Doray, E. Lopez, J.B. Rivière, L. Faivre, C. Thauvin-Robinet, J.F. Reiter, O.E. Blacque, E.M. Valente, and M.R. Leroux. (2016). MKS5 and CEP290 Dependent Assembly Pathway of the Ciliary Transition Zone. PLoS Biol 14: e1002416.

Liu, Y., S. Cao, M. Yu, and H. Hu. (2020). TMEM216 Deletion Causes Mislocalization of Cone Opsin and Rhodopsin and Photoreceptor Degeneration in Zebrafish. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 61: 24.

Takata, R., A. Takahashi, M. Fujita, Y. Momozawa, E.J. Saunders, H. Yamada, K. Maejima, K. Nakano, Y. Nishida, A. Hishida, K. Matsuo, K. Wakai, T. Yamaji, N. Sawada, M. Iwasaki, S. Tsugane, M. Sasaki, A. Shimizu, K. Tanno, N. Minegishi, K. Suzuki, K. Matsuda, M. Kubo, J. Inazawa, S. Egawa, C.A. Haiman, O. Ogawa, W. Obara, Y. Kamatani, S. Akamatsu, and H. Nakagawa. (2019). 12 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer identified by genome-wide association study in Japanese population. Nat Commun 10: 4422.

Zhang, X., Y. Zhang, Y. Miao, H. Zhou, G. Jiang, and E. Wang. (2017). TMEM17 depresses invasion and metastasis in lung cancer cells via ERK signaling pathway. Oncotarget 8: 70685-70694.

Zhao, Y., K. Song, Y. Zhang, H. Xu, X. Zhang, L. Wang, C. Fan, G. Jiang, and E. Wang. (2018). TMEM17 promotes malignant progression of breast cancer via AKT/GSK3β signaling. Cancer Manag Res 10: 2419-2428.


TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample

TMEM17 of 198 aas and 4 TMSs.  Involved in the formation of cilia (Li et al. 2016).

TMEM17 of Homo sapiens


Transmembrane protein 216, TMEM216 of 160 aas and 4 TMSs. TMEM216 deletion causes mislocalization of cone opsin and rhodopsin with photoreceptor degeneration in Zebrafish (Liu et al. 2020). Mutations in TMEM216, a ciliary transition zone tetraspan transmembrane protein, are linked to Joubert syndrome and Meckel syndrome, and photoreceptor degeneration is a prominent phenotype in Joubert syndrome. Homozygous tmem216 knockout zebrafish died before 21 days after fertilization. Their retina exhibited reduced immunoreactivity to rod photoreceptor outer segment marker 4D2 and cone photoreceptor outer segment marker G protein subunit alpha-transducin 2 (GNAT2). Thus, TMEM216 is essential for normal genesis of outer segment disc structures, transport of outer segment materials, and survival of photoreceptors in zebrafish (Liu et al. 2020)).

TMEM216 of Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (Brachydanio rerio)


Uncharacterized protein of 196 aas and 5 TMSs in a 1 + 4 TMS arrangement.

UP of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans


Uncharacterized protein of 195 aas and 5 TMSs in a 2 + 3 arrangement.

UP of Litomosoides sigmodontis


Uncharacterized protein of 169 aas and 4 TMSs

UP of Trypanosoma conorhini


Transmembrane protein of 173 aas and 4 TM

TM protein of Strigomonas culicis


Uncharacterized protein of 209 aas and 4 TMSs

UP of Micromonas pusilla


Uncharacterized protein of 160 aas and 4 TMSs.

UP of Leishmania tarentolae


TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample

Exportin-6 protein of 1163 aas with 3 TMSs near the N-terminus plus several subsequent potential TMSs.

Exportin-6 of Naegleria gruberi