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1.A.78 The K+-selective Channel in Endosomes and Lysosomes (KEL) Family 

Organelle K+ conductance studies revealed a major K+-selective channel, KEL or TMEM175, on endosomes and lysosomes (Cang et al. 2015). Unlike any of the approximately 80 plasma membrane K+ channels in mammals, TMEM175 has two repeats of 6 TMSs and has no GYG K+ channel sequence signature in a pore (P) loop. Lysosomes lacking TMEM175 exhibit no K+ conductance, have a markedly depolarized Δpsi and little sensitivity to changes in [K+]. These mutants have compromised luminal pH stability and abnormal fusion with autophagosomes during autophagy. Thus, TMEM175 comprises a K+ channel that underlies the molecular mechanism of lysosomal K+ permeability (Cang et al. 2015).

TMEM175 establishes a membrane potential essential for lysosomal function, and its dysregulation is associated with the development of Parkinson's Disease. It is evolutionarily distinct from all other known channels, predicting novel ion-selectivity and gating mechanisms. Oh et al. 2020 presented cryo-EM structures of human KEL in open and closed conformations at resolutions of up to 2.6 Å. It adopts a homodimeric architecture with a central ion-conduction pore lined by the side chains of the pore-lining helices. Conserved isoleucine residues in the center of the pore serve as the gate in the closed conformation. In the widened channel in the open conformation, these same residues establish a constriction essential for K+ selectivity (Oh et al. 2020).

The generalized reaction catalyzed by KEL is:

K+ (in the lumen of an endosome or lysosome) ⇌ K+ (cytoplasm)

References associated with 1.A.78 family:

Cang, C., K. Aranda, Y.J. Seo, B. Gasnier, and D. Ren. (2015). TMEM175 Is an Organelle K+ Channel Regulating Lysosomal Function. Cell 162: 1101-1112. 26317472
Jing, C.C., X.G. Luo, H.G. Cui, F.R. Li, P. Li, E.Z. Jiang, Y. Ren, and H. Pang. (2015). Screening of polymorphisms located in the FGF20 and TMEM175 genes in North Chinese Parkinson''s disease patients. Genet Mol Res 14: 13679-13687. 26535683
Jinn, S., R.E. Drolet, P.E. Cramer, A.H. Wong, D.M. Toolan, C.A. Gretzula, B. Voleti, G. Vassileva, J. Disa, M. Tadin-Strapps, and D.J. Stone. (2017). TMEM175 deficiency impairs lysosomal and mitochondrial function and increases α-synuclein aggregation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. [Epub: Ahead of Print] 28193887
Krohn, L., T.N. Öztürk, B. Vanderperre, B. Ouled Amar Bencheikh, J.A. Ruskey, S.B. Laurent, D. Spiegelman, R.B. Postuma, I. Arnulf, M.T.M. Hu, Y. Dauvilliers, B. Högl, A. Stefani, C.C. Monaca, G. Plazzi, E. Antelmi, L. Ferini-Strambi, A. Heidbreder, U. Rudakou, V. Cochen De Cock, P. Young, P. Wolf, P. Oliva, X.K. Zhang, L. Greenbaum, C. Liong, J.F. Gagnon, A. Desautels, S. Hassin-Baer, J.Y. Montplaisir, N. Dupré, G.A. Rouleau, E.A. Fon, J.F. Trempe, G. Lamoureux, R.N. Alcalay, and Z. Gan-Or. (2020). Genetic, Structural, and Functional Evidence Link TMEM175 to Synucleinopathies. Ann Neurol 87: 139-153. 31658403
Lee, C., J. Guo, W. Zeng, S. Kim, J. She, C. Cang, D. Ren, and Y. Jiang. (2017). The lysosomal potassium channel TMEM175 adopts a novel tetrameric architecture. Nature 547: 472-475. 28723891
Lynch, C.I., G. Klesse, S. Rao, S.J. Tucker, and M.S.P. Sansom. (2021). Water Nanoconfined in a Hydrophobic Pore: Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Transmembrane Protein 175 and the Influence of Water Models. ACS Nano. [Epub: Ahead of Print] 34784172
Oh, S., F. Marinelli, W. Zhou, J. Lee, H.J. Choi, M. Kim, J.D. Faraldo-Gómez, and R.K. Hite. (2022). Differential ion dehydration energetics explains selectivity in the non-canonical lysosomal K channel TMEM175. Elife 11:. 35608336
Oh, S., N. Paknejad, and R.K. Hite. (2020). Gating and selectivity mechanisms for the lysosomal K channel TMEM175. Elife 9:. 32228865
Pergel, E., I. Veres, G.I. Csigi, and G. Czirják. (2021). Translocation of TMEM175 Lysosomal Potassium Channel to the Plasma Membrane by Dynasore Compounds. Int J Mol Sci 22:. 34638858
Wie, J., Z. Liu, H. Song, T.F. Tropea, L. Yang, H. Wang, Y. Liang, C. Cang, K. Aranda, J. Lohmann, J. Yang, B. Lu, A.S. Chen-Plotkin, K.C. Luk, and D. Ren. (2021). A growth-factor-activated lysosomal K channel regulates Parkinson's pathology. Nature 591: 431-437. 33505021
Wu, Y., M. Xu, P. Wang, A.K.R. Syeda, P. Huang, and X.P. Dong. (2022). Lysosomal potassium channels. Cell Calcium 102: 102536. [Epub: Ahead of Print] 35016151