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1.C.109 The Bacterial Hemolysin A (TlyA) Family

The hemolysins (TlyA proteins) of Serpulina (Brachyspira) hyodysenteriae are active at 27 to 40 degrees C and pH 3 to 9 and are unaffected by enzymatic inhibitors. Pore formation was demonstrated by the inhibition of hemolysis with molecules of 2.0 to 2.3 nm in diameter and the release of 86Rb  from erythrocytes without hemoglobin release after exposure to native hemolysin (Hyatt and Joens 1997). TlyA sequences and their conserved domains in mycobacterial proteins revealed the basis for their pore-forming activities and further confirmed their roles as virulence proteins (Sharma and Singh 2022).

References associated with 1.C.109 family:

Arenas, N.E., L.M. Salazar, C.Y. Soto, C. Vizcaíno, M.E. Patarroyo, M.A. Patarroyo, and A. Gómez. (2011). Molecular modeling and in silico characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis TlyA: possible misannotation of this tubercle bacilli-hemolysin. BMC Struct Biol 11: 16. 21443791
Hyatt, D.R. and L.A. Joens. (1997). Analysis of the lytic activity of the Serpulina hyodysenteriae hemolysin. Infect. Immun. 65: 4877-4879. 9353080
Javadi, M.B. and G. Katzenmeier. (2016). The Forgotten Virulence Factor: The ''non-conventional'' Hemolysin TlyA And Its Role in Helicobacter pylori Infection. Curr. Microbiol. 73: 930-937. 27686341
Lata, K. and K. Chattopadhyay. (2014). Helicobacter pylori TlyA agglutinates liposomes and induces fusion and permeabilization of the liposome membranes. Biochemistry 53: 3553-3563. 24846696
Monshupanee, T. (2013). Increased bacterial hemolytic activity is conferred by expression of TlyA methyltransferase but not by its 2'-O-methylation of the ribosome. Curr. Microbiol. 67: 61-68. 23417025
Rahman, A., S.S. Srivastava, A. Sneh, N. Ahmed, and M.V. Krishnasastry. (2010). Molecular characterization of tlyA gene product, Rv1694 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a non-conventional hemolysin and a ribosomal RNA methyl transferase. BMC Biochem 11: 35. 20854656
Rajesh, T., J.M. Jeon, Y.H. Kim, H.J. Kim, d.a.H. Yi, S.H. Park, K.Y. Choi, Y.G. Kim, J. Kim, S. Jung, H.Y. Park, and Y.H. Yang. (2013). Functional analysis of the gene SCO1782 encoding Streptomyces hemolysin (S-hemolysin) in Streptomyces coelicolor M145. Toxicon 71: 159-165. 23747275
Ramarao, N. and V. Sanchis. (2013). The pore-forming haemolysins of bacillus cereus: a review. Toxins (Basel) 5: 1119-1139. 23748204
Sałamaszyńska-Guz, A. and D. Klimuszko. (2008). Functional analysis of the Campylobacter jejuni cj0183 and cj0588 genes. Curr. Microbiol. 56: 592-596. 18389311
Sharma, M. and P. Singh. (2022). Role of TlyA in the Biology of Uncultivable Mycobacteria. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. [Epub: Ahead of Print] 35021968
Ulens, C. (2018). Structure of a transporter domain emerges. J. Biol. Chem. 293: 20008-20009. 30593530