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1.C.112 The Cubozoan Protein Toxin (CPT) Family

Class Cubozoa includes several species of box jellyfish that are harmful to humans and other animals. The venoms of box jellyfish are stored and discharged by nematocysts and contain a variety of bioactive proteins that are cytolytic, cytotoxic, inflammatory or lethal. Although cubozoan venoms generally share similar biological activities, the diverse range and severity of effects caused by different species indicate that their venoms vary in protein composition, activity and potency. Accumulating evidence suggests that cubozoan jellyfish produce at least one group of homologous bioactive proteins that are labile, basic, haemolytic and similar in molecular mass (42-46 kDa). Novel box jellyfish toxins are also potentially lethal and the cause of cutaneous pain, inflammation and necrosis. Secondary structure analysis and remote protein homology predictions suggest that the box jellyfish toxins may act as alpha-pore-forming toxins. The biological, biochemical and molecular characteristics of cubozoan venoms and their bioactive protein components were reviewed by Brinkman and Burnell 2009 with emphasis on cubozoan cytolysins and other box jellyfish toxins.

References associated with 1.C.112 family:

Andreosso, A., P.S. Bansal, M.J. Smout, D. Wilson, J.E. Seymour, and N.L. Daly. (2018). Structural Characterisation of Predicted Helical Regions in the CfTX-1 Toxin. Mar Drugs 16:. 29880743
Brinkman DL., Konstantakopoulos N., McInerney BV., Mulvenna J., Seymour JE., Isbister GK. and Hodgson WC. (2014). Chironex fleckeri (box jellyfish) venom proteins: expansion of a cnidarian toxin family that elicits variable cytolytic and cardiovascular effects. J Biol Chem. 289(8):4798-812. 24403082
Brinkman, D. and J. Burnell. (2007). Identification, cloning and sequencing of two major venom proteins from the box jellyfish, Chironex fleckeri. Toxicon 50: 850-860. 17688901
Brinkman, D.L. and J.N. Burnell. (2009). Biochemical and molecular characterisation of cubozoan protein toxins. Toxicon 54: 1162-1173. 19232527
Law, Y.H. (2018). Stopping the sting. Science 362: 631-635. 30409869
Nagai, H., K. Takuwa, M. Nakao, B. Sakamoto, G.L. Crow, and T. Nakajima. (2000). Isolation and characterization of a novel protein toxin from the Hawaiian box jellyfish (sea wasp) Carybdea alata. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 275: 589-594. 10964708
Tibballs, J., A.A. Yanagihara, H.C. Turner, and K. Winkel. (2011). Immunological and toxinological responses to jellyfish stings. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets 10: 438-446. 21824077