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1.C.125.  The Pore-forming Stonustoxin (Stonustoxin) Family 

Stonustoxin is lethal towards mice and induces hemolytic activities due to its ability to form pores in the cell membrane (Poh et al. 1991; Chen et al. 1997). It elicits potent hypotension which is endothelium-dependent and appears to be mediated via the nitric oxide pathway. I activates potassium channels, displays edema-inducing activities, increases vascular permeability and induces endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of isolated rat aorta while inducing platelet aggregation.  It is myotoxic and interferes irreversibly with neuromuscular function (Low et al. 1994). It is derived from the venom of the Scorpaena plumieri fish which have been analyzed by proteomic approaches (Borges et al. 2018).


References associated with 1.C.125 family:

Borges, M.H., F. Andrich, P.H. Lemos, T.G. Soares, T.N. Menezes, F.V. Campos, L.X. Neves, W. Castro-Borges, and S.G. Figueiredo. (2018). Combined proteomic and functional analysis reveals rich sources of protein diversity in skin mucus and venom from the Scorpaena plumieri fish. J Proteomics 187: 200-211. 30098406
Chen, D., R.M. Kini, R. Yuen, and H.E. Khoo. (1997). Haemolytic activity of stonustoxin from stonefish (Synanceja horrida) venom: pore formation and the role of cationic amino acid residues. Biochem. J. 325(Pt3): 685-691. 9271089
Low, K.S., M.C. Gwee, R. Yuen, P. Gopalakrishnakone, and H.E. Khoo. (1994). Stonustoxin: effects on neuromuscular function in vitro and in vivo. Toxicon 32: 573-581. 8079369
Poh, C.H., R. Yuen, H.E. Khoo, M. Chung, M. Gwee, and P. Gopalakrishnakone. (1991). Purification and partial characterization of stonustoxin (lethal factor) from Synanceja horrida venom. Comp Biochem Physiol B 99: 793-798. 1790672